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What is one of the most annoying things to do during pregnancy? Yes, it is the urine test. You have to get it done so many times during the nine months that you begin dreading it. But if you understand the usefulness of a urine test during pregnancy, you wouldn’t mind it at all. Right from your home pregnancy test to the tests that confirm anomalies, you need a urine test for several purposes during your gestation.
MomJunction explains about the various urine tests that you have to take during pregnancy and how they are useful for you and the baby in the womb.
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During pregnancy, your placenta produces the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone, which appears in the urine and blood about ten days after your last period. This is the time when the fertilized egg implants in the uterus (1). The home pregnancy test detects the presence of hCG in urine.
In the initial eight to ten weeks, hCG levels increase rapidly. They reach the peak during the tenth week and then decline until the end of your pregnancy (2).
The urine test confirms pregnancy if you take it around one to two weeks after missed periods. It helps you know whether or not hCG is present in the urine. It is a qualitative test and does not give you the quantity of the hormone present in your body. The presence of hCG is a positive sign of pregnancy.
[Read: Signs and Symptoms Of Pregnancy ]
Follow these simple steps while doing a HPT to ensure the accuracy of urine pregnancy test.
Wait for about one to two weeks after you miss your period to get the best results. You may tend to miscalculate when your period is due in the case of irregular periods, and this can affect the test. In fact, out of every 100 pregnant women, 10 to 20 will not be able to detect their pregnancy on the first day of their missed period due to miscalculated periods (3).
If you are planning to take a home pregnancy urine test, check for the expiry date, because the newer the pregnancy kit, the better the results. Also check for the condition of the kit packaging (the open seal, wear and tear, etc.).
If you have stocked up a pregnancy kit from months ago, do not use it.
Going for a morning urine pregnancy test (first urine in the morning) helps you get the most accurate results because your urine is concentrated in the morning with the highest levels of hCG. Do not drink fluids before collecting the urine as it can dilute the hCG levels and alter the results.
Some home pregnancy kits require you to hold an indicator stick under the urine stream until it soaks completely. This will take about three to five seconds. Some other urine testing kits will require the urine sample to be collected in a cup and test a few drops on the stick.
Before taking the test, go through the instructions given in the overleaf. Different brands have different specifications, and you need to understand the one you are about to use.
Factors such as the method of collecting the urine, the length of the time you need to let the urine stay on the test stick and the symbols used to prove the results could be different for each brand.
You have to know the symbols listed on your pack to understand the reading better. If you are unable to decipher the symbols when reading the results, do not panic. Call the toll free number listed on the pack to seek help.
Testing for pregnancy involves mixed feelings. If you are a first timer, you are likely to be nervous and jittery. Prepare yourself mentally before taking the test. Talk to your partner and close friends for support and to come out of your fears. Do not worry about the result. Understand that pregnancy is a natural process.
Even though a urine test may look like a walk in the park, you follow all the instructions systematically. Begin with reading the instructions, know how to collect the urine sample, and then test it.
After the test, place the strip horizontally on a clean surface for the readings. Different tests have different time requirements. The waiting time is usually anywhere from one to five minutes but some tests are said to take as long as ten minutes to give the correct result.
Some women panic and keep staring at the strip nervously, waiting for the result. Remember that it will not improve the results. Instead, take a break and set a timer.
Dispose of the strip after the result is out. Do not consider the result if it takes too long to come out. The results may be inaccurate and can give a false positive evaporation line.
Once the waiting time has elapsed, check for the results. While the symbols vary with brands, the second line appearing on the stick indicates a positive result.
Reading the results can be a life changing moment for you. However, this is just the beginning. Make sure you know what to do next after doing the urine test.
Here are some things you need to keep in mind:
If a urine pregnancy test result is positive, make an appointment with your doctor. Your specialist may also recommend a blood test to confirm the results of the urine test. In most cases, the results of a urine test are accurate.
[Read: DIY Homemade Pregnancy Test ]
If you have missed your period and still the result shows negative, wait for some more time and take the test again. False negatives are sometimes possible. These can happen when you have miscalculated your ovulation date or taken the test earlier than recommended.
Home pregnancy tests claim to be 97% to 99% accurate if they are done in the right way (4). However, in certain cases, as discussed below, the result could be false positive or false negative.
Although false positives are rare after a urine test they are not ruled out. A false positive result is nothing but the test proving that you are pregnant, while in reality, you are not.
Here are some reasons for the false positive result of a urine test. However, the reasons could vary from one woman to another.
Also known as an early miscarriage, this is a scenario where you could have become pregnant but have lost it shortly after the implantation (fertilized egg settling in the uterus).
Reading the results after the recommended time has elapsed can give you a wrong result. Your stick has surpassed the actual reaction time, and there is every chance for it to show a false positive.
If you are undergoing any medical treatments for fertility, which involves a trigger shot of hCG, make sure there was enough time for the shot to metabolize and clear your system. Usually, fertility experts suggest that you should wait for about 14 days to clear the impact of the hCG shot before taking a pregnancy test.
This is a deceptive line that comes on the stick in a different color. It looks very similar to the positive line. The test kit indicates a certain color for the positive result, and the test is positive only if the line appears in that color.
If the test indicates a negative again and again, do not worry. False negatives are common. See a doctor to find out the reason for your missed period.
False negatives can happen due to several reasons, some of which are listed below (5):
If you undertake a pregnancy test in a sheer rush of anxiety, be prepared for a false negative. You have to wait until it is time to take the test. The chances of getting a false negative are high if you take the test immediately after missing your period.
[Read: False Negative Pregnancy Test ]
Despite picking the latest pregnancy kit, there is every chance of your strip being less sensitive while detecting the level of hCG due to a manufacturing defect. If you are not convinced with the negative result, try and retake the test with a different brand of home pregnancy kit.
This is the very reason why you should take the test early in the morning. If it is taken at other times of the day, the diluted urine might give a misleading result. Sometimes, your early morning urine could also be diluted. In that case, take the test again on the next day. The results could be different.
Even if the test is negative, we suggest you to be positive and have a word with your doctor (6).
Your doctor will recommend a urine test during the first prenatal care visit to confirm the result of the home test and also to rule out any health issues that could pose a danger to your pregnancy. You will continue to have periodic tests during the prenatal appointments (7).
A urinalysis is usually performed to:
[Read: False Positive Pregnancy Test ]
Urine tests during pregnancy are evaluated in three ways – visual examination, dipstick test and microscopic exam (8).
Initially, the pathologist or the lab technician will examine the appearance of your urine. If it is clear, cloudy, has an unusual odor, etc. Unusual color or odor could indicate an infection. Sometimes, the food you eat may also make your blood look different. For instance, beets or rhubarb give a red hue to your urine.
Chemically prepared thin plastic strips known as dipsticks are used to detect abnormalities. They are dipped in your urine sample to screen for some indicators.
Some drops are observed under a microscope to check for the following:
[Read: Dollar Store Pregnancy Test ]
Urine culture is a part of the prenatal examination to detect any bacterial infections that have been existing without symptoms.
Women are prone to urinary infections since their urethra is shorter than males and is closer to the anus. This allows transfer of bacteria from the anal region into the urethra and from there to the urinary tract. You also can get UTI if your partner has it.
Urine culture helps the doctor identify the bacteria and prescribe the right antibiotics. If the culture returns negative, it means your urine is infection-free and hence, you don’t require antibiotics.
A healthy pregnant woman’s urine is sterile and doesn’t contain fungi, bacteria or any other microorganisms (9).
Your OB/GYN will ask for a urine culture to:
You don’t have to do anything to prepare for a urine culture. But inform your doctor about the antibiotics that you are currently taking or have just taken.
Usually, the first urine of the day is the best for urine culture, as it will contain high levels of the infection-causing bacteria. Therefore, try not to ease yourself before you give a sample.
Collect the urine midstream.
If you are worried about urine culture, talk to your healthcare practitioner and clear your doubts and worries. Understand the risks of UTI during pregnancy and the treatment. The more you know, the easier it will be to deal with your situation.
Since the laboratory has to grow the organisms present in the urine, it takes about one to three days to get the results. Some of the microorganisms take longer than three days to grow in a lab setting. Hence, it could also be a week before you get the complete results.
Negative: This means no bacterium or fungus grew in the culture. You will not require treatment.
Positive: If bacteria or fungi grow in the urine culture, the result will be positive. Usually, if the bacteria count is 100,000 or more per milliliter, it means you have an infection. However, if the bacteria count is from 100 to 100,000, it could be an infection or contamination of the urine sample. You will be asked to give another urine sample so that the culture can be repeated. If the count is 100 or less, infection is ruled out. This is also the result you should expect if the doctor puts you on antibiotics and asks for a second urine culture.
Your test results can be affected due to several reasons, including:
Urine tests are the first tests we usually take during pregnancy. And now you know the different types of urine tests and why they are to be taken. Knowing about the importance of urine tests will clear the air and make it less embarrassing for you. Do not panic if you are diagnosed with any infection as your practitioner will help you with a treatment plan.
Have an experience to share or questions to ask about urine pregnancy tests? Let us know in the comment section below.