First Month Of Pregnancy: Symptoms, Precautions, And Baby's Development

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A little human being is growing inside you. And the coming nine months will turn out to be the happiest time in your life. But you will have many questions and many more apprehensions running in your mind. MomJunction has come up with a guide to explain all about first-month pregnancy. Read on to understand the symptoms of your pregnancy in the first month, what changes you can expect in your body, and how the fetus grows in this month.

What Might Be The Early Stages Of Pregnancy?

Only a few women can realize that they are pregnant a few days after conception. You are likely to experience some mild symptoms such as tender breasts, sickness, and fatigue in the beginning stages of pregnancy. And the first prominent sign of pregnancy is a missed period (1).

If you are observant, you can recognize the other signals that your pregnant body gives to convey the message to you.

Pregnancy Symptoms In The First Month

The pregnancy symptoms in the first month are similar to those of pre-menstruation. Therefore, they are confusing. These hugely happen due to the pregnancy hormones released in your body at the time of implantation (i.e., when the embryo implants in the uterus).

Here are the possible symptoms you may experience in the first month of pregnancy.

1. Monthly period stops:

Getting pregnant will affect your body and the first major change in your routine is a missed period. You will miss your period because the body starts producing progesterone hormone after conceiving.

2. Spotting:

You may notice slight bleeding and cramping due to the implantation when a fertilized egg implants itself in the uterus. This happens about a week after conception. Sometimes the spotting is painless, and you can only observe it while wiping your genitals (2).

3. Mood swings:

You will experience rapid changes in your mood in the early stages of pregnancy. You may begin to cry or feel anxious for no particular reason. You will be affectionate, and the next moment you turn out to be snappy with your dear ones. This is because of the changing hormones in your body (3).

4. Soreness of breasts:

Your breasts are sore and painful. The nipples are darker, and there are small bumps on the areola. There will be visible veins on your breasts. These symptoms are similar to those you have during the pre-menstrual time.

[ Read: How To Reduce Breast Pain During Pregnancy ]

5. Fatigue:

Your energy levels drop, and you feel tired as your body is working hard to develop your baby. Therefore, you will develop fatigue and sleeplessness.

6. Frequent urination:

Increasing progesterone levels improve the blood flow to the uterus and cause thickening of the uterine lining. This is to protect and help in the baby’s growth and development. In this process, your kidneys increase in size and work overtime to handle the increasing body fluids. This leads to a feeling of fullness and increases your urge to urinate.

7. Morning sickness:

It is associated with nausea and vomiting, which you will experience as early as three weeks of pregnancy due to the rising levels of beta HCG. Though called morning sickness, it can happen at any time of the day or night. However, some pregnant women may not experience this issue.

8. Food cravings/aversions:

Most women experience food cravings and aversions. The foods you have loved once may turn out to be repulsive, and those which you never liked may be your favorites.

9. Heartburn:

Hormonal and physical alterations in your body system during pregnancy cause symptoms like heartburn and acid reflux that are temporary. You will again experience these symptoms in the third trimester when the growing baby pushes the stomach and the intestines.

[ Read: Home Remedies To Treat Heartburn During Pregnancy ]

10. Constipation:

The progesterone hormone has muscle relaxing properties that would slow down things too much. The food, therefore, passes slowly through the intestine and leads to constipation.

11. Dizziness:

Another side effect of progesterone hormone is it makes you feel dizzy, which relaxes your blood vessels, causing low blood pressure.

12. Strong sense of smell:

It is another common sign of pregnancy again due to the hormones. You may begin hating the smell of certain food, drink, or toiletries.

13. Increased appetite:

Pregnant hunger pangs are common. Don’t be surprised if you feel hungry all the time.

14. Backache:

Back pain in the lumbar region could be severe because the progesterone hormone loosens the ligaments covering the pelvis.

15. Headaches:

You will suffer from frequent headaches during early pregnancy. Stress, hormones and increased blood volume could be the factors responsible for a headache in the first trimester.

16. Thrush:

This is a yeast infection caused by pregnancy hormones, which alter the natural balance of bacteria in the vaginal region (4).

In the first month, the symptoms are subtle. If you are eager to know about your pregnancy, then combine these symptoms with the changes happening in your body.

Body Changes In The First Month Of Pregnancy:

You may not notice any significant change in the size and shape of your body during the first month of gestation. A few body changes you may experience are:

  • You feel bloated, and your waistband may feel tight.
  • Your breasts increase in size as they start preparing for lactation.
  • The areolas surrounding the nipple become large and darkened.
  • You will experience spotting (not in all the cases) for one week to ten days after ovulation (i.e., when embryo implants in the uterus).
  • Increased vaginal secretions.
  • Extreme tiredness and you feel like running down.
  • Dizziness that worsens.

Have you been experiencing some of the above-mentioned symptoms and body changes? Then you must be pregnant and would want to know at what stage of development your baby is in the womb.

Your Baby’s Development In The First Month:

It begins with the conception and then formation up to the fourth week of pregnancy . Although you are not pregnant until conception (i.e., the first two weeks), it is still calculated from the first day of LMP. So, the first month is weeks one to four (5).

  1. Fertilization: The life starts when the spermatozoa and the ovum unite. It can occur within two to three days after intercourse, and the process happens in the fallopian tube. This is when the baby begins the journey of development. In the early stage, the baby is referred as a zygote which then begins to multiply profusely within moments.
  1. Implantation: The zygote travels to the uterus from the fallopian tube, and by the fourth day it divides into a solid cluster of cells called morula. By the fifth or sixth day, the morula divides into a blastocyst, and in a few days, implantation occurs as it nestles itself into the wall of the uterus (womb) to draw nutrition. Surrounding the embryo is yolk sac, a cluster of blood vessels, which provides blood to the embryo until the placenta takes over.
  1. Developing: Between the third and fourth week, the developing heart begins to beat. Arm, leg and lung buds form. The face, including the eyes, nose, ears and mouth take a form. The neural tube and brain also take a form. Your baby will be the size of a raisin, i.e., less than a three-fourth inch in length.

Pregnancy Due Date Calculator

[ Read: 1st Month Pregnancy Diet ]

Your Visit To The Doctor / Diagnosis of Pregnancy:

Pregnancy can be the most confusing time especially if you are pregnant for the first time. You can confirm it through a home test by buying the kit from a drug store. If you are still confused, or the results seem to be negative, pay a visit to your OB/GYN for confirmation. This is to make sure the symptoms you are experiencing are not false alarms.

Here is what happens at a doctor’s clinic:

1. History and physical examination:

  • Your doctor will seek information regarding your last menstrual period, flow, duration, and frequency.
  • Make sure to give all the correct details. If you have been using any contraceptives, tell your doctor.
  • The doctor will do a physical test to find out if you had tubal manipulation and tubal disease, tubal ligation, inflammatory disease and ectopic pregnancy in the past.
  • Physical tests reveal whether the woman used intrauterine devices for contraception and underwent fertility therapies. Chemical assays and ultrasonography help to detect pregnancy even before the symptoms like nausea begin showing.

2. Laboratory evaluation:

Some hormones are measured to diagnose the pregnancy.

  • A urine sample is often used to check the human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) hormone, which is a key determinant of your pregnancy. If the tests results are not satisfactory, blood samples are taken for detecting the hormone.
  • The levels of hCG also determine whether you have an ectopic pregnancy. If the hCG levels are low or slowly increasing, it detects an abnormal pregnancy such as ectopic pregnancy or abortion (6).
  • If the hCG levels are high, you are likely to have a molar pregnancy, chromosome abnormality, and multiple gestations.
  • Measuring serum progesterone is important to detect the risk of any early abnormal pregnancy (7).
  • A dipstick ELISA is effective in determining the level of progesterone.

3. Ultrasonography:

The transvaginal ultrasonography (TVUS) has made pregnancy detection easy and efficient. It is the best method to detect intrauterine pregnancy (8). The vaginal probes are more effective than abdominal probes in the first trimester, since the frequency is higher and the resolution of the image is better.

The First Month Early Pregnancy Care/ The To-do List:

Once your pregnancy is confirmed, take care of yourself, arrange for a caregiver and plan for a baby budget.

  1. Start your prenatal care: If you have not started taking prenatal vitamins, especially folic acid supplements, yet, then start it now. It is better to take folic acid supplements at least two months before you conceive and continue with them for three months after conception. Folic acid helps to prevent neural tube defects like spina bifida in babies and ensures a safe pregnancy.
  1. Investigate health insurance: Find out an effective health insurance plan that covers both prenatal care and delivery costs. The insurance should also cover the cost of the newborn. If you are working with a company, contact the human resource or benefits department to know about the insurance cover and maternity perks provided by your company. A healthy financial plan is essential before giving birth.
  1. Choose a caregiver: If you already have a caregiver who is well informed about pregnancy and delivering the baby, then you are prepared. If not, talk to your relatives and friends and find someone who is experienced in delivering babies and pregnancy care. You need to be in good hands to avoid any complications.
  1. Make a prenatal appointment: Get to know about all the available caregivers since appointments fill up fast. Once you have selected your caregiver, make the appointment straight away. Sometimes caregivers won’t give you a date before you are eight weeks pregnant.

Note down the first day of your last period; this will help your caregiver to calculate the expected due date. You should make a list of queries related to your condition.

You should also inform the caregiver about your family’s medical history, for her to make a note of the chronic conditions and genetic abnormalities, if any, that are running in your family.

  1. Consult the caregiver about medicines you are taking: Most of the medicines available over the counter are not safe during pregnancy. Avoid self-medication. Check with your doctor about what not to have during pregnancy. Suppose you need to have a medicine for a chronic condition, call your caregiver right away.

[ Read: 2nd Month Pregnancy Diet ]

A patient and friendly caregiver or midwife is an asset. Make a pregnancy bulletin board and stick all the do’s and don’ts so that you don’t skip any of them. You can maintain a diary with all the developments, both physical and psychological changes taking place. It can be a memory after your child is born and you will smile at those difficult moments too! After all, pregnancy brings some happiness along with pain; it creates some cherished memories.

Keeping a diary is also methodical because your caregiver will understand your problems and gives effective treatment.

Precautions During First Month Of Pregnancy – What To Do And What Not To Do

It is time to focus on your lifestyle as the first month is a sensitive period in the life of the baby.

What to do in your early pregnancy?

  1. Exercise regularly: Mild exercises and activities will make your system function normally. Walking is the best workout as it will not cause any strain on your body. You may also join in a special yoga class conducted for would-be mommies. Whatever activity you plan to take, discuss with your OB/GYN so that it helps in guiding you better.

[ Read: Exercises For Normal Delivery ]

  1. Eat fiber-rich foods: Having a balanced diet is important. Try not to overeat; even your most favorite food has to be taken in limited amounts. Include fiber-rich foods as they ease constipation and regularize your stomach functions. Take sprouts, cereals, spinach and legumes in your diet. Have small meals several times a day as it will help you stay filled, fit and healthy. Eat fruits like strawberries, which are rich in folic acid.
  1. Drink more water: You should drink eight to ten glasses of water every day. Stay hydrated so that your body will not get undernourished.
  1. Have a healthy mind: Your emotions and mood have an impact on the baby’s emotional well-being. Hence, keep yourself calm, confident and happy. Meditation is the best way to bring such positivity around and within you. You could practice it at least for one hour a day.
  1. Increase sleeping hours: Your body is undergoing a lot of physical and hormonal changes. For these changes to happen smoothly and for you to not have a sudden impact of the changing conditions, sleep peacefully for a long time.
  1. Yeast infection: Vaginal candidiasis is a common infection in expectant mothers. This occurs due to high estrogen levels and higher glycogen content in vaginal secretions and decreased immunity during pregnancy. Maintaining vagina hygiene and taking probiotics such as lactobacillus acidophilus would be helpful (9).

It is not enough if you are following the above practices. You need to undo certain habits, too.

[ Read: Infections During Pregnancy ]

What not to do in your early pregnancy?

Now that we’ve sorted out the dos, it’s time to focus on the don’ts of the first-month pregnancy care.

  1. Do not panic: Wished you have you not planned a baby too soon? Worried about your baby having some abnormalities? Such thoughts and fears are common for a mom-to-be, but you should avoid them as such thoughts will have a direct effect on your baby. So stop panicking and join meditation, yoga classes or consult your doctor for solutions.
  1. Avoid coffee: Coffee contains caffeine which is thought to cause certain health risks in babies. It may lead to low birth weights and birth defects. For the mom-to-be, it can cause heartburn, anxiety, and insomnia.
  1. Stop junk food: Junk food increases your weight and weakens the immune system. Unwanted fat could lead to health complication in both the mother and the baby. It may also affect your blood pressure and sugar levels.

[ Read: Foods To Avoid During Pregnancy ]

  1. Don’t consume alcohol: Drinking alcohol during the first month of pregnancy can affect the fetal growth. It may cause congenital abnormalities and later lead to learning difficulties in the child.
  1. Quit smoking: Cigarette smoking is dangerous as it leads to many complications including low birth weight, and breathing problems in the baby. Passive smoking is also dangerous.
  1. Don’t wear tight clothes and high heels: Your body is undergoing changes, and it is necessary to give your body space to breathe. So keep aside all the tight fitting clothes for awhile and wear loose dresses. Wear flat and comfortable shoes to avoid tripping.
  1. Avoid long distance traveling: The chances of miscarriage are the highest in the first month. Traveling during the first trimester could put undue pressure on your pregnancy in addition to causing morning sickness.
  1. Avoid Sauna / hot tubs: They involve staying in temperatures that are above the body’s normal temperature. Higher temperatures will affect the fetal development.
  1. Do not bend and lift weights: Do not carry any object that weighs more than 20 pounds. The limit reduces with the progressing pregnancy as it can put pressure on the developing baby. Also, do not bend while doing any household chores as it can cause dizziness.

[ Read: Symptoms Of Pregnancy Implantation]

Some other precautions and concerns:

  • Use gloves while gardening, especially if you are dealing with soil
  • Avoid contact with cat’s poo as it contains parasites
  • Avoid exposure to pesticides and chemicals
  • Monitor your blood sugar levels continuously and follow a proper diet plan along with exercises
  • Reduce your exposure to video display terminals
  • Avoid sex for at least the first two months of pregnancy, and follow safe measures if you want to have intercourse.

Pregnancy is the responsibility of both you and your partner. Therefore, the dad-to-be also needs to get ready for his new role.

Tips For Dads-To-Be:

Men don’t always react to pregnancy the way women do. A majority of them are overwhelmed while the others are afraid of losing their partner’s affection. It takes time for the news to sink in. If you are going through one of these emotions right now, relax, because this is normal. But do not be too vocal about your fears, for you have no idea about what your partner is thinking. Behind the calm and composed exterior, there could be a mom who’s petrified about the impending pregnancy. Here are some things to do this month:

1. Get the paperwork done:

How does the health insurance work? Whose plan gets the best coverage? What happens when your wife decides to quit her job? Check everything to avoid any financial confusion.

2. Read about pregnancy:

Unlike the men of yore, you can’t leave the entire pregnancy burden on your partner. Read up on the physiological and psychological changes a woman undergoes when pregnant. Get to know how your baby progresses over the weeks. And if your wife is susceptible to a medical condition, speak to the doctor to know how you can help her. Your partner is the best person to tell you how you could get involved.

3. Have patience when dealing with her idiosyncrasies:

Pregnant women are known to have weird food cravings, be it cigarette ash or salty food. Hormonal changes and nutrition deficiency make them come up with such bizarre food choices. She may sometimes wake up in the middle of the night because she is hungry or could not eat the entire day due to nausea. Indulge her by stocking up things she loves.

The journey has just begun, and there is a long way to go. The experience is exhausting, but at the end of nine months, you will realize that all your pains are worth it. You will forget your hardships the moment you have the first skin-to-skin with your baby.

Have an experience to share or a question to ask? Feel free to write to us in the comment section.

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Dr. Vimee Bindra

Dr. Vimee Bindra is a Consultant Gynaecologist, Laparoscopic Surgeon, and medical writer. She specializes in Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Gynae Endoscopic Surgery, and Endometriosis Excision. She graduated from R G Kar Medical College, Kolkata (1998-2003), and pursued her post-graduation in Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Kolkata (2005-2008). She also obtained the advanced Laparoscopy and Hysteroscopy training from Clermont Ferrand in France. Dr.... more

Rebecca Malachi

Rebecca is a pregnancy writer and editor with a passion for delivering research-based and engaging content in areas of fertility, pregnancy, birth, and post-pregnancy. She has been into health and wellness writing since 2010. She received her graduate degree in Biotechnology and Genetics from Loyola Academy, Osmania University and obtained a certification in ‘Nutrition and Lifestyle in Pregnancy’ from Ludwig... more