Abdominal migraine is a common under-diagnosed cause of chronic and recurrent abdominal pain in children and is often accompanied by other symptoms such as headache, nausea, and vomiting. It is characterized by intense episodes of abdominal pain that might last for more than an hour (1).
Abdominal migraine is closely associated with cyclic vomiting syndrome, and hence, can be mistaken for it (2).
Read this post to learn more about the triggers, signs and symptoms, risks, complications, treatment, and prevention of abdominal migraine in children.
Causes And Triggers Of Abdominal Migraine In Children
The exact cause of abdominal migraine in children is not known, but scientists believe it might stem from a problem in the brain-gut pathway (2). “We don’t know the exact causes of abdominal migraine, but we do know there is a connection between the brain and the gut,” says Deena Kuruvilla, MD, a neurologist and specialist in facial and headache pain at Yale Medicine (3).
Food-related triggers of abdominal migraine include
- Citrus food, caffeine, cheese, chocolate, carbonated drinks
- Foods containing high concentrations of amine
- Foods with additive flavoring
- Foods that contain artificial colors
- Foods containing monosodium glutamate
Non-food related triggers of abdominal migraine might include
- Sleep deprivation and irregular sleep habits
- School and family stressors
- Bright or flickering light
- Prolonged fasting
Symptoms Of Abdominal Migraine In Children
- Nausea and vomiting
- Loss of appetite
- Pale skin
- Sensitivity to light (photophobia) and sound
In between episodes of abdominal migraine, your child might not show any of the symptoms mentioned above.
Apart from the symptoms stated above, watch out for the following potential alarm signs and symptoms (4).
- Persistent right upper or right lower quadrant pain
- Pain radiating to the back
- Involuntary weight loss
- Recurrent or unexplained fever
- Delayed puberty
- Rash with no identifiable cause
- Joint pain or swelling
If you suspect abdominal migraine in your child, seek a doctor to determine the underlying cause as certain gastrointestinal, urinogenital, or metabolic conditions may mimic abdominal migraine (6).
Risk Factors For Abdominal Migraine
Abdominal migraine mostly affects children than adults, and the first episodes are known to occur at three to ten years. It also affects more females than males. Furthermore, research suggests that psychological factors such as abuse and stressful events may increase a child’s risk for abdominal migraine (5).
Like migraine, abdominal migraine is believed to be a polygenetic disease (a genetic disorder caused by the combined action of more than one gene), and the chance of your child getting it depends on the history of migraine in other family members. For example, a child with a family history of abdominal migraines is more likely to develop it.
How To Diagnose Abdominal Migraine In Children?
No specific test exists for the diagnosis of abdominal migraine. Your child’s doctor will make the diagnosis based on the frequency and severity of the symptoms (3). The child should be carefully evaluated for the presence of any alarming symptoms or signs.
The diagnosis also includes a thorough review of the child and family’s medical history, physical examination, and investigations to rule out other causes that mimic abdominal migraine.
Certain diagnostic studies that might be considered for children showing signs of chronic and recurrent abdominal pain include (4)
- Blood tests
- Urine and stool tests
- Radiological studies such as X-ray, MRI, and ultrasound
- Endoscopic procedures
Treatment For Abdominal Migraine In Children
Most of the treatments used for treating typical migraine are also applied in treating abdominal migraine in children because there are no FDA-approved treatments for treating this condition. The doctors may prescribe the following medications (3) (8).
- NSAIDs (such as Ibuprofen) for relieving pain
- Triptans to prevent the symptoms from progressing
- Anti-nausea medication to prevent vomiting.
How To Prevent Abdominal Migraine In Children?
One of the best ways to prevent abdominal migraine in your child would be to avoid the triggers that cause it. You can work with your doctor and family members to devise strategies to avoid the triggers that might cause abdominal migraine in your child.
- If your child experiences frequent abdominal migraine attacks, consult your child’s doctor about exploring preventive therapies such as beta-blockers, cyproheptadine, and topiramate.
- You might also want to try biofeedback and cognitive behavioral therapy as they are known to show positive results in treating migraines (8).
- In addition to therapy and avoiding the trigger points, a well-balanced diet and a stress-free environment might also go a long way in preventing the symptoms of abdominal migraine in children.
Abdominal migraine is a sub-type of migraine that is mainly seen in children. Children outgrow it by the time they reach adolescence. If you suspect your child has abdominal migraine, consult a doctor to confirm the diagnosis as underlying conditions such as gastrointestinal or urinogenital conditions might also mimic the symptoms of abdominal migraine.
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- Abdominal Migraine: Symptoms
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- Jyoti Mani and Shailender Madani; (2018); Pediatric abdominal migraine: current perspectives on a lesser-known entity.
- Demiana J. Amzy and Cary M. Qualia; (2020); Review of Abdominal Migraine in Children.
- Abdominal Migraine.
- Abdominal Migraine.
- What You Need To Know About Abdominal Migraine.