Anterior placenta: Does it affect your pregnancy and baby’s growth?

Anterior Placenta

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The placenta is a vital organ that helps transport nutrients, oxygen and blood from the mother to the baby during pregnancy. It fights internal infections and aids in the production of hormones for a healthy and safe pregnancy.

The condition and the position of the placenta, therefore, are of utmost importance and can affect the pregnancy outcome. In this MomJunction post, we tell you about anterior placenta and how this position can affect your pregnancy.

What Is Anterior Placenta?

An anterior placenta is when the placenta attaches itself to the front side of the uterus, close to the abdominal wall.

While the placenta can attach itself anywhere in the uterus, it typically develops in the posterior (back) side, close to the spine. In the anterior placental position, most of the baby’s movements are masked by the placenta and cannot be detected (1).

An anterior placenta is a very rare phenomenon and is more likely to happen if you had a cesarean earlier.

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When Will You Know If You Have An Anterior Placenta?

The doctor checks the placental position in the 20th-week scan, which is also referred to as ‘anomaly scan’. The placental location can be described as:

  • Anterior – Implants on the front of the uterine wall
  • Posterior – Implants on the back of the uterine wall
  • Fundal – Attaches to the top of the uterine wall
  • Right or left lateral – Implants on the right or left side of the uterus (2)

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Does Anterior Placenta Affect Your Pregnancy?

An anterior placenta is not a cause for concern, but it can make certain things difficult (3) (4).

  1. Difficult to detect the fetal heartbeat: Usually, you can first hear the baby’s heartbeat between the 8th and the 10th week of pregnancy. It may be detected either by a hand-held Doppler or a fetoscope. In the case of the anterior placenta, that might be difficult since the placenta is between the hearing aid and the fetus.
  1. Hard to feel baby’s kicks: You cannot feel the baby’s kicks and movements since the placenta acts as a cushion between your abdomen and the uterus. You will feel muted movements and delayed kicks than those having a posterior placenta.
  1. Hard to recognize baby’s position: Since the movements cannot be appropriately detected, it is not easy to determine the baby’s position.

This prevents you from learning about the baby’s development as easily as the other mothers can. And that is annoying!

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Does Anterior Placenta Affect Your Baby’s Growth And Development?

No, an anterior placenta does not affect the baby’s development or health. It will not make any difference to the fetus as long as it is cushioned in the placenta.

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Does Anterior Placenta Affect Your Natural Birth Plan?

There is a chance of normal delivery even with an anterior placenta, as long as the vaginal opening is not closed. Even in this case, the placenta gets separated from the uterine wall and is removed and sent for analysis, if necessary.

However, research states that the anterior placenta might increase the need for labor inducement and a cesarean section. It can also delay the start of labor. There is also a high risk of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) during vaginal deliveries (5).

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What Are The Complications Of Having An Anterior Placenta?

An anterior placenta will not cause any complications during pregnancy. However, it could create complications during labor and delivery, when it grows towards the cervix instead of growing up towards the uterus (6).

  • It might pose risks during a c-section. The placental position could make the incision more difficult, thereby resulting in heavy bleeding during delivery. Anterior placenta increases the risk of excess bleeding during vaginal delivery too (7).
  • Needle positioning becomes challenging in the case of amniocentesis, resulting in bleeding and tears in the membrane.
  • Women with an anterior placental position are known to experience low back pain (8). You may develop back labor, which is a severe pain in the back that occurs with the contractions during labor.
  • A low-lying anterior placenta will increase the chance of placenta previa, which might partly or completely block the cervix, increasing the need for a c-section (9).
  • Anterior placenta over an old C-section scar can lead to placenta accreta, which causes the placenta to grow deep into the scar and also the uterine wall (10).
  • When the baby is in breech position, your doctor performs a cephalic presentation for a smooth vaginal birth. But with an anterior placenta, it is not possible to turn the baby from breech position to head-down position, especially in the low-lying anterior placenta (11).

An ultrasound and MRI scan can help detect the above conditions so that the doctor can plan for a cesarean delivery accordingly.

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Are There Any Other Risks Of Anterior Placenta?

Anterior placenta is also known to increase the risk of (9).

  • Pregnancy-induced hypertension
  • Gestational diabetes mellitus
  • Placental abruption
  • Intrauterine growth retardation
  • Intrauterine fetal death

Although potential, these risks to the mother and the child are rare. Regardless, it is best to consult a doctor to stay safe.

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When to see a doctor?

Check for the following signs and symptoms that indicate placental issue:

  • Strong uterine contractions
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vaginal bleeding
  • Severe back pain

If you have suffered an impact to your belly during a fall or trauma, get the injuries checked by a doctor. These injuries might affect the placental health and may warrant a need medical examination.

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Studies About Anterior Placenta

  • Birth weight of fetuses with anterior placenta was higher compared to normal placental pregnancies. Also, the incidence of an anterior placenta is higher in case of female births (12).
  • Majority of women with O-positive blood group had an anterior placenta (9).
  • Sleep position during conception also influences the placental implantation site (13).

Keep reading to learn about placental grading system based next.

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Placental Grading (Grannum classification)

Placental grading is the classification of the ultrasonographic morphology of the placenta, based on its maturity. It reflects the extent of calcification with the gestational age. The placenta is grouped into four grades from grade zero to three (14).

Grade 0:

  • Gestational age: between late first trimester and early second trimester, i.e., less than 18 weeks.
  • The chorionic plate is straight, smooth and a well-defined, unbroken dense line.
  • The placental substance is a uniform echotexture with no echogenic areas.
  • No basal layer echogenicities

Grade 1:

  • Gestational age: mid-second trimester to early third trimester, i.e., 18 to 29 weeks.
  • It is the early stage of placental maturation.
  • The chorionic plate is a well-defined unbroken line which may have fine undulations.
  • The placental substance contains a few echogenic areas that are randomly scattered.

Grade 2:

  • Gestational age: Late third trimester, i.e., beyond 30 weeks.
  • The chorionic plate has more marked indentations.
  • The placental substance is incompletely divided with linear echogenic densities.
  • Larger calcifications are present in the basilar plate with a ‘dot-dash’ configuration.

Grade 3:

  • Gestational age: Beyond 39 weeks, i.e., when the placenta is mature.
  • The chorionic plate has complete indentations.
  • The placental substance is divided into compartments that demarcate the cotyledons.
  • Basal layer is denser and bigger.

Calcification as above is considered normal and healthy. However, there is a chance of premature calcification in case of pre-existing conditions such as placenta previa, high blood pressure, diabetes or anemia. Calcification will not affect the fetal development in any way.

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Home Care In The Case Of An Anterior Placenta

The following measures will keep up the placental health. They will also make labor easy, thus keeping both the mother and the baby healthy.

  • Eat well for nourishing the placenta. Include more of leafy green vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and healthy fats. Minimize the consumption of processed and salty foods.
  • Hydrate yourself by drinking more water and juices. Placenta requires fluids to drain away the fetal waste.
  • If you are allowed to exercise, brisk walking, prenatal yoga, and pelvic floor can be helpful. Take precautions and do not overdo them.
  • Avoid sudden jerks to the body – don’t plop on to the sofa or drop yourself into a forward-leaning inversion suddenly. Minimize sudden movements such as forward bends or twists. Wear a seat belt while traveling.
  • Avoid smoking and narcotics that may harm your placenta and fetus.

Keep reading for answers to some frequently asked questions.

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Frequently Asked Questions

1. Can the placenta move from an anterior to the posterior position?

The placenta does not move once it is attached or implanted. So it cannot shift from an anterior position to a posterior one.

2. Do contractions feel different with an anterior placenta?

Since the anterior placenta creates a cushioning effect between the fetus and the uterine wall, you will not feel the contractions much. But the strength of the contractions is the same as when the placental position is normal.

3. Does anterior placenta make your belly look bigger?

The placenta in the anterior position is likely to make your belly look smaller because it is located towards the abdominal wall and squeezes in the excess water and baby parts in between the internal organs.

4. Can a twin hide behind an anterior placenta?

No, there are no chances of a twin hiding behind a placenta. However, it might happen in the case where twins are sharing the same placenta and amniotic sac. Here, they are positioned so closely that they could not be detected easily in a scan.

5. How should I sleep when I have an anterior placenta?

Irrespective of the placental position, you should try and get into the habit of sleeping on your side, which is the comfortable position during pregnancy. It is better when you sleep on your left side as it improves the flow of blood and nutrients to placenta, fetus, and uterus.

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An anterior placenta is not a cause for concern. Any risks that arise due to an anterior placenta are manageable if they are diagnosed in time during the ultrasound scans. This is a common placental position that experienced doctors can handle with ease. All you need to do is follow your doctor’s suggestions and keep stress at bay. Also, eat healthy, sleep better, keep a happy mind and enjoy your time now, as it is special.

Did you experience any problems during your pregnancy due to anterior placenta? If yes, share your experiences with us.

References

1. Sue Macdonald; Mayes’ Midwifery E-Book: A Textbook for Midwives; page 9
2. M. Nagwani et al.; Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Placental Location in Third Trimester of Pregnancy in Relation to Fetal Weight; IOSR-JDMS (2016)
3. Tori Kropp; The Joy of Pregnancy: The Complete, Candid, and Reassuring Companion for Parents-to-be; page 162
4. Heidi Murkoff; What to Expect When You’re Expecting 5th Edition
5. Torricelli M et al.; Anterior placental location influences onset and progress of labor and postpartum outcome; Placenta (2015)
6. Edited by Ronald S. Gibbs et al.; Danforth’s Obstetrics and Gynecology; page 389
7. Torricelli M et al.; Anterior placental location influences onset and progress of labor and postpartum outcome; Placenta (2015)
8. Orvieto R et al.; Low-back pain of pregnancy; Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand (1994)
9. Shumaila Zia; Placental location and pregnancy outcome; J Turk Ger Gynecol Assoc (2013)
10. Placenta Accreta; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (2017)
11. Haruyama Y; Placental implantation as the cause of breech presentation; Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi (1987)
12. M. D. Erdolu et al.; Relationship between placental localization, birth weight, umbilical Doppler parameters, and foetal sex; Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences (2014)
13. Magann EF; Dominant maternal sleep position influences site of placental implantation; Mil Med (2002)
14. D. Deopa et al.; “Comparison Of Placental Grading By Ultrasonographic Study In Normal And High Risk Pregnancy In North Indian Population”; J Anat Soc India (2011)

 

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Rebecca Malachi

She is a Biotechnologist with a proficiency in areas of genetics, immunology, microbiology, bio-engineering, chemical engineering, medicine, pharmaceuticals to name a few. Her expertise in these fields has greatly assisted her in writing medical and life science articles. With 8+ years of work experience in writing for health and wellness, she is now a full-time contributor for Momjunction.com. She is passionate about giving research-based information to readers in need. Apart from writing, she is a foodie, loves travel, fond of gospel music and enjoys observing nature in silence. Know more about her at: linkedin.com/in/kothapalli-rebecca-35881628
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