Backpain in teenagers is not uncommon. It can happen due to a pulled muscle, a sprain, carrying heavy backpacks, or bruising of the back. Back pain arising from these factors usually subsides in a few weeks without any medical intervention. However, persistent back pain combined with some other symptoms may indicate an underlying condition and should be assessed by a healthcare professional. Keep reading this post as we explain the causes, home remedies, treatment, prevention, and possible medical conditions that may lead to back pain in teens.
What Could Cause Back Pain In Teenagers?
If your teenager is complaining of back pain, observe the symptoms to know if it is due to a physical injury or an underlying medical condition. Sometimes, certain lifestyle changes or injuries may also cause lower back pain in teenagers. We have also included a few medical conditions that might cause back pain in the later section of the post.
- Physical injuries: Usually, back pain in a teenager could be because of stress on the spine and surrounding structures resulting from over-exertion during athletic participation, training regimens, and carrying heavy backpacks (1) (2). The symptoms may include stiffness in the back area, pain in the middle, or lower back (3).
- Poor posture: Sedentary lifestyle, such as sitting and lying down and watching TV or computer for prolonged hours, obesity, and stress, is one of the most common causes of back pain in teenagers.
- Strenuous work: Taking up a new exercise regime or physically straining jobs, such as lifting heavy loads, bending, or stretching too far for a long time might strain and wear out the back muscles and result in back pain.
- Acute spinal cord injury: This is an injury to the spinal cord that could have occurred when the spine or neck is bent or compressed during birth, a motor vehicle accident, sports injury, stab wound, etc.
Symptoms of acute spinal injury include.
- Muscles weakness
- Loss of movement in the legs
- Bladder and bowel problems
- Breathing problems (2)
Is Back Pain A Sign Of Puberty?
- Increase in height and changes in body composition.
- Increase in fat mass at the end of puberty, which might replace active muscle fibers.
- Hormonal changes.
However, further research is needed to learn more about the association between puberty and back pain.
Treatment For Common Back Pain In Teenagers
Your child’s doctor would recommend a treatment regimen based on the diagnosis, which involves a physical examination and, if necessary, an X-ray and CT scan.
- In the case of spinal injuries, medical attention is required. Sometimes, surgery may be needed to correct the broken bones.
- According to a study, physical therapy and manual therapy were found to be effective in treating lower back pain in children. However, certain limitations of the study prevented drawing a definitive conclusion (5).
- Back pain due to sprains and bruises may subside after rest or activity modification.
- Your child’s doctor might prescribe non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs if there is unbearable pain and swelling.
- Physical therapy programs might help in reducing back pain.
- Hamstring and abdominal strengthening exercises might help in relieving persistent back pain.
Home Remedies For Back Pain In Teenagers
If your teenager has acute back pain without any additional symptoms, then some of these home remedies might help provide relief.
- According to a Cochrane review, superficial hot and cold compress might provide short-term relief from lower back pain (6).
- Menthol, which is the active ingredient in several topical pain-relieving creams, might help mask the pain for a short period by creating a cooling sensation. However, this does not treat the underlying cause (7).
- Topical pain relievers that contain methyl salicylate are said to provide relief, but there is no research to prove their effectiveness. You may try this if your child does not have aspirin allergy and is older that 12 years (7). Salicylates should not be used in younger kids.
- Topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatories, such as diclofenac, can be used for pain relief.
- Check your teen’s posture and correct it by showing them how to have a good posture.
- Use chairs that can offer better back support.
- Do not encourage your teen to spend hours playing video games and watching television; ask them to take a break and stretch after every hour.
- If your teen exercises, then make sure they do it the right way.
When To Take Your Child To The Doctor
Take your child to a doctor if they complain of the below symptoms in addition to back pain.
- There is a pain in the legs associated with numbness and weakness.
- Persistent pain not relieved by rest.
- Intermitted back pain that persists for more than four weeks.
- They have other symptoms, such as fatigue and sleeplessness.
- The pain is severe and interferes with their activities and sleep.
- The back pain occurs at night, and your child wakes up in the middle of their sleep.
- Bowel or bladder problems (8).
- Pain associated with other symptoms such as weight loss, fever, night sweats.
If you notice any of the above symptoms, then back pain could be due to an underlying medical condition. Next, we list down a few possible medical conditions that might lead to back pain in teenagers.
Medical conditions that may cause back pain in teenagers
Here are a few medical conditions that might cause back pain in teenagers.
This condition is caused due to bone defects in the vertebrae of the spinal cord. Such defects can lead to the weakening of the bones and further cause the vertebrae to slip. This condition could be congenital or acquired (found mostly among athletes). The symptoms are mild and often unknown. If the symptoms do occur, they are most likely to appear during the growth spurt (9).
- Low back pain that spreads across the area
- Worsening of the pain during vigorous activity or exercise
This condition could be treated by making a few lifestyle changes, physiotherapy, braces, or surgery in rare cases.
2. Scheuermann’s disease
Also known as Scheuermann’s kyphosis, this is a condition where the spine would have a rounding posture, which could lead to a curvature of the spine. Although the exact causes for this condition are unknown, it is said to be hereditary and might develop in teenagers between the ages of 10-15 years. The symptoms include:
- Difference in shoulder height
- Tightness of muscles in the back of the thigh
- Back pain.
This condition could be managed with physiotherapy, braces, or surgery in some severe cases (10).
In this condition, the spine would be curved in the shape of an ‘S’ or ‘C’. So, instead of growing straight, the spine would have a side-to-side curvature. The exact reason for this is unknown. Sometimes, genetics and environmental factors could play a role. This condition is found to be more prevalent in girls than in boys.
The symptoms include:
- Some pain in the lower back
- Unevenness in the shoulders, waist, and hips
- One leg might appear longer than the other.
This condition could be treated using braces or surgery (11).
4. Juvenile fibromyalgia
This chronic pain condition mostly occurs in teenage girls. It causes pain in the muscles and soft tissues in the back, neck, shoulders, buttocks, arms, and legs. If your child is showing any of the below symptoms along with back pain, it could be fibromyalgia. Although the exact cause is not known, some researchers say it could be due to genetics and environmental factors. The symptoms include:
- Sleep difficulties
- Irritable bowel symptoms
- Anxiety or depression
Back pain could also be due to spinal infections. Though these are not common in children, spinal infections in children could be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites. Your child might have the following symptoms:
When diagnosed in time, these infections can be treated with antibiotic therapies and rest.
Although not common, back pain could also be because of spinal tumors. A lack of symptoms could delay the diagnosis. The doctor may check for some clinical symptoms, such as:
- Motor weakness
- Muscle rigidity and spasm
- Dull and aching back pain
- Regular pain that occurs at night and disturbs the child’s sleep (3).
X-ray imaging could be used for diagnosing the presence of a tumor. Based on the type of tumor, the doctor might opt for surgery, chemotherapy, and medications (14).
7. Kidney stones
The presence of kidney stones leads to a sharp pain in the back, side, and lower abdomen. Other symptoms include:
- Pink, red-colored urine
- Pain while urinating
- Constant urge to urinate
- Inconsistency in the flow of urine
- Cloudy or foul smell in urine
Treatment depends on the size and number of stones.
- If the stones are small, drinking plenty of water might help the child to pass them in the urine.
- Larger stones are removed by breaking them into smaller pieces using shock wave therapy, cystoscopy, and surgery (15).
Can You Prevent Back Pain In Teenagers?
Prevention depends on the reason behind the pain.
- If the back pain is the result of strain, then teach your teens the right way to exercise and lift heavy objects.
- Drinking plenty of water might prevent the formation of kidney stones.
- Making them practice the right posture from an early age may also help prevent back pain.
- Make sure your teenager is sitting in a chair that has good back support.
- Backpacks should not be overloaded and should be worn on both shoulders. Also, the backpack should be made of sturdy material that supports both the shoulders equally.
- Encourage them to use protective gear whenever they are trying a new sport or a new exercise regime.
Many factors could cause back pain in teens. It could be a physical injury, or sometimes back pain could be due to puberty. Therefore, the medical intervention depends on the underlying cause. Check your teen’s posture, school bag weight, and past medical history. If your teen has been complaining of severe back pain, seek a doctor’s advice. Take a note of all the accompanying symptoms before paying the visit. Follow the treatment plan as advised by the doctor. You may also use a few home remedies and alternative treatments, such as physiotherapy, after seeking the doctor’s approval.
3. Robert M. Bernstein, and Harold Cozen; Evaluation of Back Pain in Children and Adolescents; American Family Physician
4. Arnaud Lardon, Charlotte Leboeuf-Yde, and Niels Wedderkopp; Is puberty a risk factor for back pain in the young? a systematic critical literature review; NCBI
5. Inmaculada Calvo-Muñoz, Antonia Gómez-Conesa, and Julio Sánchez-Meca; Physical therapy treatments for low back pain in children and adolescents: a meta-analysis; British Medical Journal
6. Simon D. French, et al.; A Cochrane Review of Superficial Heat or Cold for Low Back Pain; Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
7. Rubbing it in; Harvard Health Publishing
8. Adam D Jakes, Robert Phillips, and Michael Scales; Teenagers with back pain; The British Medical Journal
9. Spondylolysis; Cleveland Clinic
10. Orthopaedic Fact Sheet- Scheuermann’s Disease; The Royal Children’s Hospital
11 Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis; US National Library of Medicine
12. Susmita Kashikar-Zuck and Tracy V. Ting; Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments; NCBI
13. Rahul Tyagi; Spinal infections in children: A review; Journal of Orthopaedics
14. Thierry A.G.M. Huisman; Pediatric tumors of the spine; NCBI
15. Symptoms & Causes of Kidney Stones in Children; National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease