Bacterial infections in children are a major reason for emergency pediatric visits, especially in younger children. Bacteria are single-celled organisms that are visible under the microscope. Some bacteria found on or inside the human body are harmless and, in most cases, beneficial. However, others may cause infections in humans.
Children may be prescribed antibiotics for infections that do not resolve on their own. You should continue giving the antibiotics as advised even if the symptoms disappear to avoid antibiotic resistance.
Read this post to know more about the causes, risk factors, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of bacterial infections in children.
Common Bacterial Infections In Children
The following bacterial infections are common in children (1).
- Skin infections such as impetigo
- Ear infections such as otitis media and otitis externa
- Strep throat (throat infections)
- Sinusitis (sinus infections)
- Lower respiratory tract infections such as pneumonia
- Urinary tract infections
- Meningitis and brain abscess formation
- Osteomyelitis (bone infection)
Blood infections, brain infections, such as encephalitis and meningitis, and heart infections, such as endocarditis and myocarditis are also seen in some children. However, these are not common. Children with immune system deficiencies are more likely to develop bacterial infections than healthy children.
Causes Of Bacterial Infections
Bacteria must enter one’s body to cause infections. Bacteria can spread from an infected person to another in the following ways.
- Air (respiratory) droplets spread respiratory infections
- Cuts, wounds, and bug bites could facilitate the entry of bacteria through the skin
- Consuming contaminated food or water
- Sharing personal items and utensils
- Dental caries could increase the risk of other bacterial infections
- Touching contaminated surfaces and not washing hands
Bacterial infections can spread in different ways. However, maintaining proper hand hygiene could prevent the spread of most bacterial infections.
Risk Factors For Bacterial Infections In Children
The following conditions may increase the risk of contracting a bacterial infection in children (2).
- Immune system disorders
- Absence of spleen (asplenia)
- Sickle cell diseases
- Not vaccinated
Children with these risk factors are often provided with antibiotic prophylaxis (preventive antibiotic course) to prevent serious infections. In case your child is not vaccinated, discuss with their pediatrician and begin vaccination since this helps avoid many bacterial diseases.
Signs And Symptoms Of Bacterial Infections
Signs and symptoms of bacterial infections may vary depending on the severity and affected part of the body. The common symptoms seen in most bacterial infections include (3):
- Pain or discomfort in the affected part of the body
Other symptoms seen in various bacterial infections include:
- Dyspnea (shortness of breath)
- Chest pain
- Burning during urination
- Cloudy or thick urine
- Skin rashes
The type of infection can be identified based on the signs and symptoms. In the case of severe infections, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics may commence, even before the test results are available.
Prevention Of Bacterial Infections
Routine immunization is the best way to prevent vaccine-preventable bacterial infections. Maintaining good hygiene and avoiding contact with infected people could help prevent the spread of bacterial diseases.
The following bacterial infections are preventable with routine immunization (4).
- Pertussis (whooping cough)
- Haemophilus influenzae type B infections
- Streptococcus pneumoniae infections
- Neisseria meningitidis
- Meningococcal meningitis and sepicaemia
Diagnosis Of Bacterial Infection
The following tests help identify the presence of bacteria in the body (2).
- Blood test
- Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis in case of brain infections
- Other body fluid analysis
- Tissue analysis
- Sample culture
Bacteria from these samples are often identified under the microscope or by rapid detection tests that determine the bacterial genetic material. If the sample’s bacterial population is too low, a culture of the sample is prepared in the laboratories. The culture can often help identify the infection-causing bacteria within 24 to 48 hours.
In some cases, the culture is done to test the bacteria’s susceptibility and resistance to antibiotics. This may help the physician prescribe the most effective antibiotic. Additional tests, such as X-rays, MRI scan, CT scan, echocardiography, and ultrasound, are ordered to identify the infection’s clinical manifestations and complications.
Treatment For Bacterial Infections
Antibiotics are medications that treat bacterial infections. These medications kill (bactericidal) or stop the growth (bacteriostatic) of bacteria in the body. Broad-spectrum antibiotics are effective against many bacteria, whereas narrow-spectrum antibiotics target only a particular type of bacteria (5).
Depending on the severity of infection, doctors may prescribe a single or combination of antibiotics. The duration of treatment and dosage may vary in different diseases. Some infections may require a single dose or three-day treatment course, whereas certain infections, such as tuberculosis (TB), may need treatment for a few months.
In some cases, surgical treatments are required to remove abscesses or pus collection due to bacterial infections. Depending on the clinical manifestations and complications, children may require intravenous fluids and symptomatic treatment for stabilization.
Complications Of Bacterial Infections
Although many bacterial infections are treatable with antibiotics, some may not respond to usual medications due to resistance. Untreated bacterial infections could result in the following complications (6).
- Severe infection
- The spread of infection to another part of the body
- Bacteremia (bacteria in the bloodstream)
- Sepsis or SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome)
- Septic shock
The complications could vary based on the type of bacterial infection. High fever-related complications, such as seizures and dehydration, could be life-threatening if not managed on time. Complications of bacterial infections can be fatal if left untreated.
Using nonprescription antibiotics and not following the appropriate duration and dose of antibiotics can result in resistance. This is when bacteria do not respond to treatments with antibiotics. Resistance could result in recurrent infections and requires more complex medications to deal with the infection.
Bacterial infections in children may affect their skin, internal ear, throat, respiratory tract, eyes, etc. These infections usually spread through contaminated food, water, respiratory droplets, surfaces, or insect bites. In addition, immune malfunctions or missed vaccinations may make children prone to bacterial infections. Symptoms and treatment depend on the type and severity of the infection. Avoid self-medicating children with antibiotics as it may have side effects and increase the risk of bacterial resistance. Instead, check with your child’s doctor to know the causative bacteria and the necessary treatment.
- Skin infections such as impetigo, ear infections such as otitis media, strep throat, and sinusitis are common bacterial infections in children.
- Immune system disorders, cancer, absence of spleen (asplenia), and sickle cell diseases might increase children’s risk of contracting a bacterial infection.
- Broad-spectrum antibiotics are used to treat severe bacterial infections.
2. Overview of Bacterial Infections in Children; MSD Manuals
3. Is it a Bacterial Infection or Virus?; DukeHealth
4. Bacterial Vaccines; ScienceDirect
5. Antibiotic Prescriptions for Children: 10 Common Questions Answered; Healthy Children; The American Academy of Pediatrics
6. Pneumonia; University of Utah