Cough is one of the ways for the body to clear clearing mucus, phlegm, postnasal drip, or a foreign body. A baby could cough for various reasons. While a cough is an essential function, it is not healthy for an infant to cough too much. Seek medical help if your baby coughs a lot (1).
Read this MomJunction post to know more about baby’s cough, its types, causes, treatment, and prevention.
Types Of Cough In Babies
- Acute cough: A sudden onset of cough that lasts from a few days to less than three weeks.
- Subacute cough: Lasts around three to eight weeks. Slow in onset.
- Chronic or persistent cough: Lasts more than eight weeks, usually from allergies or asthma. It occurs off and on. It can also be due to infections.
- Dry cough: Non-productive cough where there is no sputum production. Generally hacking cough.
- Wet cough: Productive cough (phlegm) with sputum.
- Nocturnal cough: Occurs at night and can be due to postnasal drip (mucus from nose and sinus drain to throat) or asthma. Mainly allergic cough.
- Daytime cough: Occurs during the day and can often be allergic to smoke, air fresheners, pets, etc.
Cough can be classified based on their character, which is the nature of air’s movement during the cough (3).
- Barking cough: It can be due to swelling and inflammation in the upper airway, usually the larynx and trachea, due to the parainfluenza virus that interferes with taking the breath in. Inspiration. It may start suddenly during the night. You may hear stridor, which is a loud noise from harsh breathing while inhaling air. It is caused by croup (4).
- Whooping cough: It is a type of continuous cough without gaps to breathe in between coughing. The whooping sound is heard when the baby takes a deep breath at the end of the coughing episode. It is caused by pertussis infection by bacterium Bordetella pertussis and is common in unvaccinated babies under the age of one year (5).
- Staccato cough: The baby breathes in between each cough. It is a characteristic symptom of chlamydial pneumonia in babies (6).
Symptoms With Cough In Babies
Coughing by itself can be a symptom of respiratory tract infection or a simple reflex to an irritant such as smoke. The following symptoms could also occur along with cough in babies (3):
- Cough with wheezing: Wheezing is a whistling sound that occurs while breathing out(expiration). The whistling sound can be heard from a distance. The child becomes breathless. It can be due to lower airway tract infections such as asthma or bronchiolitis or due to foreign bodies such as food or small toys.
- Cough with a fever: Your baby may get a mild or high grade fever depending upon the severity of infection, whether mild flu or pneumonia. Body temperature more than 102°F (39°C) can be due to infections such as pneumonia.
- Cough with vomiting: If your baby has asthma or cold, they may vomit due to excess mucus accumulated in the stomach due to swallowing it. Or the mucus can get collected in the upper throat. Sometimes, they may vomit due to the stimulation of gag reflex while coughing.
When Should You Call The Doctor?
- Difficulty in breathing
- Breathing faster than usual. Generally depending on the age but respiratory rate more than 40 per minute.
- Chest indrawing.
- Blue color of the lips, face, or tongue
- High fever
- High fever with cough, without a runny or stuffy nose
- High or mild fever in infants less than three months old
- Cough more than few hours in infants younger than three months
- Whooping sound after cough
- Barking cough
- Coughing up blood
- Stridor (sharp sound while breathing)
- Tiredness and irritability
- Dehydration symptoms such as dry mouth, sunken eyes, no tears, and less urine
What Are The Causes Of Coughing In Babies?
Baby’s cough can be due to various factors ranging from teething to severe bacterial infections such as pertussis. Common cold, flu, and other respiratory infections may also cause cough. The common causes include (8):
- Viral infections such as common cold, croup, etc.
- Bacterial infections of airways such as pertussis
- Allergic cough
- Gastroesophageal reflux
- Congenital heart and respiratory problems
- Foreign bodies
- Cystic fibrosis
- Airway irritants
- Aspiration of food
- Teething due to excess saliva
- Habitual cough
Diagnosis Of Cough In Babies
Your doctor makes a diagnosis by hearing the type of cough and other signs and symptoms. The diagnostic tests to identify the cause of cough may include the following.
- Blood test
- Chest x-ray
- Sputum culture
Treatment Of Cough In Babies
After identifying the cause of the cough, your doctor will recommend the appropriate treatment.
- Cough due to bacterial infections requires antibiotic treatment.
- A viral infection related cough requires supportive therapies.
- Cough medicines are usually not recommended for children.
It is advised not to give over-the-counter cough syrup or cough drops to your baby since they have the risk of causing serious complications such as slow breathing, choking, etc. (9).
How To Prevent Cough In Babies?
The following factors may help prevent cough in babies.
- You can prevent exacerbation of asthmatic cough by following prescribed medication.
- Do not give small toys, which may be choking hazards.
- Keep the baby away from smoke.
- Follow proper feeding techniques to avoid food aspirations.
- Get recommended vaccinations on time.
- Try to protect your baby from contracting viral illnesses such as flu or cold if you have it.
Home Treatment For Cough In Babies
The following home remedies may help relieve cough in babies (7):
- Give plenty of fluids or breastmilk to soothe the throat and prevent dehydration.
- The baby will need more rest.
- Prevent the drying of the nose and throat by using a cool-mist vaporizer or humidifier near a baby crib.
- Saline drops can be used if your baby has a stuffy nose. Bulb syringe or other suction tools can be used to clean the nose in infants.
- Dress your baby in warm clothing in winter months.
- Keep away irritants such as pets, air fresheners, or dust from your baby.
You should not give honey to a baby younger than one year. Instead, one to three spoons of warm, clear fluid might help provide relief to babies of three months to one year of age. These fluids can be breast milk or formula. If your baby is less than three months old, then do not try home remedies but see a doctor. (10).
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2. Cough; The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
3. Cough Symptoms & Causes; Boston Children’s Hospital
4. Croup; The United States National Library of Medicine
5. Signs and Symptoms; Pertussis (Whooping cough); Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
6. Ronelle Vanessa Naidoo and Penelope Ann Bryant, Not every cough in bronchiolitis season is bronchiolitis; National Center for Biotechnology Information
7. Colds and flu in babies and children; Healthdirect; Government of Australia
8. 8 causes of chronic cough in kids; RUSH University Medical Center
9. When to Give Kids Medicine for Coughs and Colds; U.S. Food & Drug Administration
10. Coughs: Meds or Home Remedies?; Seattle Children’s Hospital