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Allergies In Children: Types, Causes, Symptoms And Natural Remedies

allergies in children

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An allergy is an excessive response of the immune system to certain substances (or allergens) that are not usually harmful. Allergies are often bothersome. In fact, it is one of the reasons for children to miss school (1). As parents, knowing the kind of allergy your child has may help in taking precautions while also improving their quality of life.

In this MomJunction post, we tell you about different types of allergies in children, their causes, symptoms, and natural allergy relief methods.

Types Of Allergies In Children

Allergies can be classified based on the part of the body affected and the mode of transmission of the allergen. Some major types of allergy that affect children are:

  1. Seasonal or Respiratory Allergies
  2. Skin Allergies
  3. Food Allergies
  4. Other Allergies

We will tell you about each type of allergy, its causes, symptoms, and natural remedies.

Seasonal or Respiratory Allergies

Seasonal allergies may occur at any time of the year. They strike when the child gets exposed to pollen from flowers, weeds, grass, or trees. These can affect around 40% of children (2).

Causes of seasonal allergies

The causes could vary from one child to another. Some of the basic ones are:

  • Pollen from grass and trees and exposure to pesticides and fertilizers could be the causes for seasonal allergies in spring (3).
  • Ragweed and grass are the primary triggers in summer for allergies (4).
  • Pigweed, cocklebur, burning bush, tumbleweed, and lamb’s-quarters may lead to fall allergies (4).
  • During colder days of winter, children are mostly indoors. Dust, latex in clothing, and mold are the common triggers for seasonal winter allergies (5).
  • Hay fever is a common trigger for seasonal allergy. It could occur in any season. The pollen could be from weeds, grasses, and trees (6).

Symptoms of seasonal allergies

The following are some of the common symptoms of seasonal allergies:

  • Sore throat
  • Sneezing and runny nose
  • Congestion and chronic cough
  • Itchy nose and eyes
  • Disturbed sleep and behavioral issues
  • Fatigue
  • Sinus and ear infections
  • Asthma

Natural relief from seasonal allergies

Some natural remedies may help provide relief to the child with seasonal or respiratory allergies (7).

  1. Antihistamines are known to treat symptoms of allergy, including hay fever. A pediatrician can prescribe the right one, be it a tablet, injection, liquid, or capsule.
  2. Doctors may prescribe decongestants (nasal sprays, nose drops, tablets, or liquid) for cold symptoms, including nasal congestion.
  3. In some instances, doctors may prescribe allergy shots or nasal steroids if the regular medicines are ineffective.

Skin Allergies in Children

Skin is the largest organ of the body and it can be affected by allergens (8) (9).

Causes of skin allergies

Various substances and compounds could trigger an allergic reaction of the skin.

  1. Preservatives: Some children may suffer from allergies when their skin gets exposed to certain ingredients. Some common allergens include formaldehyde and methylisothiazolinone releasers such as DMDM hydantoin, diazolidinyl urea, and 3-diol bronopol. These could be found in moisturizers, facial cosmetics, shampoos, and other cosmetic products.
  2. Metals: According to the American Academy of Dermatology, approximately 11 million kids suffer from nickel allergy. This metal is usually found in jewelry, hooks, zippers, and in some straps too. Even face paints contain small amounts of these metals.
  3. Botanical allergens: Some children may have sensitive skin. Contact with certain essential oils such as tea tree, lavender, peppermint, close, and citronella may cause skin reactions.

Symptoms of skin allergies

Some of the common signs of skin allergies are (10) (11):

  • Dry or itchy skin
  • Redness on the skin
  • Rashes at the joints such as elbow, behind knees and ears, and on wrists
  • White or red bumps called hives, develop on the body
  • Change of skin color around lips, cheeks, or eyes
  • Blisters or burning sensation

Natural relief from skin allergies

Natural remedies may help treat some skin allergies or provide relief from the symptoms (11) (12) (13):

  1. Applying ice packs or wet cloth on the itchy skin may provide relief. Cooling agents, such as calamine and menthol, help.
  1. Wearing cotton fabric may avoid itchiness in the case of skin allergies. Also, bathing in lukewarm water may help.
  1. Doctors may prescribe antihistamines to some children based on the symptoms.
  1. In some cases, doctors may suggest applying calcineurin inhibitors or corticosteroid (topical steroid) to reduce inflammation.
  1. Moisturizers such as Vanicream and petroleum jelly may help in reducing irritation.

Food Allergies in Children

According to the Food Allergy Research & Education, one in 13 children in the US has a food allergy (14). When the child’s body reacts specifically to certain foods, it is called food allergy. It happens when the immune system confuses food compounds to be pathogens and mounts an immune response. Food allergies could range from mild to severe (life-threatening).

Causes of food allergies

Each child can be allergic to different food, but some foods cause allergies more commonly than others (15).

  • Milk, eggs, soy, wheat, and tree nuts may cause mild allergy symptoms.
  • Peanuts, shellfish, and fish may cause severe symptoms in some children.

[Read: Types Of Food Allergies In Children]

Symptoms of food allergies

The symptoms of a food allergy may start within a few minutes or hours after eating the food. Mild symptoms could affect the nose, mouth, gut, or skin. Severe symptoms could affect the throat, lung, mouth, gut, skin, heart, or other organs (15).

  • Nausea, cramps, and discomfort
  • Vomiting and diarrhea
  • Swelling and itchiness in the mouth, on the tongue, near lips, or in the throat
  • Wheezing or difficulty in breathing
  • Eczema or hives

Natural relief from food allergies

  1. There is no medication to treat food allergies. The only option is to avoid the allergen completely. If the food is a significant source of nutrition, then the child’s doctor may suggest supplements and alternative foods.

Other Allergies in Children

1. Pet allergy

Pet dander (such as fur, feathers, or flakes of skin), urine, and saliva could be potential allergens (16). The symptoms of pet allergy may include a skin rash, runny nose or sneezing, coughing, difficulty in breathing, and itchy or red eyes.

The treatment varies based on the severity of the symptoms. The mild ones may go away by washing hands with soap and water. Vacuuming and keeping the house clean can help get rid of the pet dander. However, the severe symptoms may be treated by allergy shots (prescribed by a doctor). The child should preferably avoid the pet to prevent allergies in the long run.

2. Medicine allergy

Certain medications could cause mild to severe allergic reactions in children. The symptoms may include pimples or redness from different kinds of steroids, purple or red rashes from antibiotics (that have phenolphthalein, tetracycline, or sulfa), purple area due to certain blood-thinners, and blisters due to sulfa, penicillin, or some antibiotics (17).

Based on the severity of the symptom, drug allergies in children may be treated with epinephrine, antihistamines, or corticosteroids as prescribed by the doctor. If the medication is temporary, then the symptoms go away on suspending the dosage. Parents can also discuss with their child’s doctor about alternative medicines that are unlikely to trigger an allergy.

[Read: Insect Bite Allergy in Kids]

When To Call A Doctor?

It is good to see a doctor if your child shows severe symptoms of an allergy. Also, if natural allergy remedies do not provide relief, then consult a doctor for appropriate treatment.

Allergies are mostly manageable and not something to be worried about. It is essential to take precautions and know about the natural relief measures that may help in treating allergies in children. Staying away from allergens can help avoid additional problems and lets your child lead a healthy life.

Do you know any more natural allergy relief for kids? Do leave your comments in the section below.

References:

1. All About Allergies; Brenner Children’s Wake Forest Baptist Health
2. Seasonal Allergies: Keeping Symptoms in Check; Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (2019)
3. Spring Allergy Tips; National Jewish Health (2016)
4. Common Seasonal Allergy Triggers; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
5. Seasonal Allergies in Children; healthychildren.org
6. Pollen Allergy; Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America
7. Treatment for a Child’s Allergy to Dust or Pollen; Lucile Packard Children’s Hospital Stanford
8. Watch Out for the Most Common Allergies in Children; Blank Children’s Hospital
9. M. Boyle, What causedyour child’s allergic skin reaction?; ewg.org
10. Skin allergy; American Academy of Allergy Asthma & Immonolgy
11. Skin Allergy; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
12. Contact Dermititis; Harvard Health Publishing
13. How to relieve itchy skin; American Academy of Dermatology
14. Do you know the signs of food allergy?; Food Allergy Research & Education
15. Food Allergies in Children; John’s Hopkins Medicine
16. Pet Allergy; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
17. Medicine Rashes in Children; University of Rochester Medical Center

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