- What is Depo-Provera/ depo shot?
- How does a depo shot work?
- How effective is a depo shot?
- What are the side effects of a depo shot?
- When to call the doctor?
- Advantages and disadvantages of a depo shot
- How to get pregnant on depo shot?
- Is depo shot safe during pregnancy and breastfeeding?
Not ready to get pregnant? You must be looking for contraceptive options that can prevent unwanted pregnancy without hampering your sexual desires. Depo-Provera is one such contraceptive that reduces the possibility of pregnancy to a maximum extent. But is it safe?
What Is Depo-Provera/ Depo Shot?
Depo-Provera is a female contraceptive injection containing a synthetic progesterone hormone called depo-medroxyprogesterone (DMPA).
Usually, 150mg of the drug is administered through a deep intramuscular injection (1). The injection is given by a doctor or a nurse in the upper arms or buttocks. One depo shot is given within five days of menstruation and it remains effective for about 12 weeks.
But a depo shot cannot be taken if you have any of these health issues (2):
- Breast cancer
- Blood clots
- Liver disease
- High risk for heart disease
- High blood pressure
- Migraine headaches
You should inform your doctor if you have any of the above health issues or if you are taking other medications because Depo-Provera goes into your body and changes the way your menstrual system works.
How Does A Depo Shot Work?
As mentioned earlier, Depo-Provera is a synthesized form of progesterone. When the body senses the presence of progesterone, it will stop producing the hormone naturally, thereby inhibiting the release of the egg.
The contraceptive injection works in more than one way:
- Prevents the release of eggs from ovaries.
- Thickens the cervical mucus, which prevents the sperm from reaching the egg.
- Restricts implantation by bringing a change in the uterine lining.
The shot, once taken, is effective for 12 weeks or three months.
[Read: Birth Control Shot]
How Effective Is A Depo Shot?
The depo shot is the most effective contraceptive with an accuracy of 97% (3). If you take it every 12 weeks, it can be 99.7% effective. However, no birth control method is 100% effective.
What if you miss a shot?
If you haven’t taken a shot after 12 to 13 weeks, you may have to use alternative contraceptive methods to avoid pregnancy. Also, go for a pregnancy test before taking the shot after a gap.
Though the shot is very effective, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) advises the users to take it for not more than two years as it weakens the bone mass density, so supplementary calcium may be taken. However, the World Health Organization does not put any such restrictions (4).
But the drug is not free of side effects.
What Are The Side Effects Of A Depo Shot?
Depo-Provera’s side effects include (5):
- Abdominal discomfort
- Mood changes
- Reduced interest in sex
- Allergic reactions
- Fluid retention
- Breast soreness
- Irregular or no periods
- Spotting or heavy bleeding
- Loss of bone density. This risk increases if you have a family history of osteoporosis
- There is a risk of blood clot in the head, heart, legs or lungs due to the high levels of progesterone
- According to research, women on depo shots have a higher risk of contracting HIV possibly because the DMPA weakens the immunity system (6)
Other mild side effects are:
- Leg cramps
- Pain at injection site
- Hair loss on the head or unwanted hair growth on the body
- Slight bruising where the shot has been given
- A small, permanent dent in the skin where the shot has been given
The side effects of the depo shot are significant, and there is a reason why you might have these issues if you take the injection.
Why Does A Depo Shot Have Side Effects?
When a high dose of progestin is injected, it takes some time for the body to cope with this synthetic hormone. Since this contraceptive medication has a long-lasting effect, you may experience certain side-effects.
However, as the shots become regular, you might notice a reduction in the level of discomfort as the body gets used to the presence of progestin. The side effects also subside if you stop taking the shots.
One thing to note about the side effects is that they are similar to the symptoms of pregnancy.
[Read: Birth Control Methods]
Depo shot side effects that are similar to pregnancy symptoms:
Do not panic if you have the below effects after having the injection:
- Depo shots alter the menstrual cycle and lead to a missed period or amenorrhea for a longer period.
- Fatigue is one of the side effects of depo shot and also an early sign of pregnancy.
- If you are taking the depo shot for the first time, you may feel nauseous.
- Due to the hormonal changes, your breasts might become tender similar to what happens during pregnancy.
- Headaches are another discomfort common in both the cases.
- Frequent urination might confuse you if it is an early sign of pregnancy.
- Cravings for certain foods due to the depo shot-induced hormonal changes.
When To Call The Doctor?
Contact your doctor immediately if you experience:
- Intense abdominal pain
- Yellowing of eyes or skin
- Heavy or prolonged vaginal bleeding
- Lumps in the breast
- Severe depression
- Weakness or numbness in an arm or leg
- Shortness of breath
- Problem with eyesight or speech
- Severe pain in the chest, back or jaw
The doctor might recommend an alternative to depo shot if she thinks that the injection isn’t suiting you. You may discuss the matter in detail with the doctor.
What to ask your doctor?
- Ask them about how soon you can get pregnant after you stop the shots.
- This contraceptive method alters the menstrual cycle. Find out as to what is normal and what is not.
- Weight gain is one of the prominent side effects of Depo. Therefore, ask your doctor what you can do to avoid this problem.
Make sure to discuss the pros and cons of depo shots before moving on or away from it.
Advantages And Disadvantages Of A Depo Shot
Here are some advantages of a depo shot:
- Highly effective and offers longer protection against pregnancy with a single shot taken every three months
- No interference with sex
- Decreases cramping and bleeding during periods
- Prevents uterine fibroids and may offer protection against ovarian and endometrial cancers
- No need to remember to take a pill every day
- More affordable than birth control pills
The disadvantages include:
- The shots must be received every 12 to 13 weeks
- The shots need to be stopped several months before you plan your pregnancy
- Causes irregular bleeding
- Can result in weight changes and depression
- The injection is painful
- Requires frequent visits to the doctor and a prescription
- Can cause ectopic pregnancy
- It does not protect you against sexually transmitted diseases, and you may still have to use condoms for this
One of the biggest disadvantages of depo shots is that you have to wait for months to restore your fertility in case you are planning a pregnancy.
How To Get Pregnant On Depo Shot?
If you plan for pregnancy while on depo shots, you need to stop it months before you get pregnant. According to the FDA, the median time to conceive after discontinuing the shots is ten months. However, you may conceive as early as four months or as late as 31 months (2).
The synthetic hormone needs to leave your body so that fertility can be restored. However, the length of the drug’s usage does not influence your chances of getting pregnant. If you have decided to conceive, then you must skip the next shot.
But what happens if you have unknowingly taken the shot when you are pregnant? And can you opt for a shot while breastfeeding your baby? Answers follow.
Is Depo Shot Safe During Pregnancy And Breastfeeding?
In addition to being a contraceptive, a depo shot is also an abortifacient, which means it can abort your pregnancy. The man-made hormone inhibits hCG secretions, thus restricting follicular maturation. It also thins down the endometrial lining.
Therefore, the FDA stipulates that the injection be given only after the doctor confirms that you are not pregnant. Also, it may be given within the first five days of your menstrual cycle.
Depo while breastfeeding
Depo-Provera does pass into the breast milk in small amounts but has no impact on the nursing babies (7).There have been no reports of any long-term effects on the behavior or development of the baby.
However, if you are breastfeeding, you should not take the first shot until at least six weeks after delivery.
Depo shot is the most effective contraceptive but is not the safest of them all. It is similar to other hormone contraceptives, and therefore you need to weigh your options carefully before deciding to go ahead with the injection. Consider other alternatives, which are much safer and effective during breast feeding, and see if they work for you.
Have you had a depo shot? How was your experience? Share it in the comment section.
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