Stored breast milk looks and smells different from freshly expressed or pumped breast milk. Some parents describe the taste and smell as “soapy” and others as “metallic.” The perceptions may vary, but do these changes mean that breast milk has spoiled? If not, how would someone tell if breast milk has gone bad? Knowing the answers to these questions can ensure safe feeding and minimal milk wastage.
Read on to know signs that indicate that breast milk has gone bad and ways to prevent it.
Signs Indicating The Breast Milk Has Gone Bad
Breast milk’s taste and smell vary from one mother to another. Therefore, knowing the common signs indicating milk spoilage can prevent you from feeding your baby spoiled milk.
Here are some ways you can determine milk’s fitness for consumption.
When milk is still fit for consumption, a quick swirl causes the layers to dissolve (2). However, if your breast milk appears chunky or maintains separate layers even after swirling a couple of times, the milk has likely gone bad.
Breast milk’s odor could vary among mothers and even across feeding sessions. These changes are based on several factors, such as the mother’s diet and medications. Besides, an off or soapy smell is a relatively common occurrence for mothers with high lipase-containing breast milk (3). In such a case, determining spoilage isn’t easy. However, a simple test could help.
For the test, freeze a small amount of your breast milk for a week. After a week, thaw the milk and check its scent.
- If you have high lipase milk, your milk will likely smell soapy, metallic, or fishy. However, the milk is fit for the baby’s consumption. You can deactivate lipase activity by scalding breast milk.
- If the milk smells sour or rancid, the milk has undergone chemical oxidation. Discarding such milk is advisable. A diet rich in PUFA or rancid fats and water containing free copper and iron ions could cause oxidation, giving a peculiar smell to breast milk.
If breast milk tastes rancid or sour, it has likely gone bad. You can perform the same test as above — store the milk for a week and evaluate the taste changes. Soapy-, metallic-, or fishy-tasting breast milk is likely due to high lipase activity. On the other hand, a sour or rancid taste indicates chemical oxidation.
In general, breast milk stored longer than recommended may indicate that milk might have gone bad. Freshly pumped or expressed milk stored in the refrigerator for more than four days or previously frozen and thawed milk stored for more than a day are likely to go bad (4).
What Happens When A Baby Consumes Spoiled Breast Milk?
You may sometimes not know that your stored breast milk has gone bad. In such instances, accidental feeding of spoiled milk is possible. A baby may exhibit the following signs when they ingest spoiled breast milk.
- Refusal to feed: Experts believe that persistent refusal to feed can signify that the baby doesn’t like the milk’s taste (5). In case your baby is persistently refusing to consume stored breast milk or acts too fussy while feeding, check the taste of your milk for spoilage. When a breastfeeding baby refuses to feed, it is known as a nursing strike that may have several other reasons for it.
- Frequent spitting up or vomiting: Babies have sensitive digestive systems. If they consume spoiled breast milk, they are likely to experience gastrointestinal disturbances, such as diarrhea and vomiting. Some babies may also feel a lot gassier and pass odd-colored stools. If you notice your baby throwing up repeatedly, frequently passing watery stools after the feed, or displaying other digestive issue symptoms, check your breast milk and consult a pediatrician.
- Fever: Although uncommon, some babies may develop low to high degree fever after ingesting spoiled milk. It usually happens when the milk has bacterial contamination, most likely due to improper milk handling and storage. In such cases, babies develop fever a few hours after ingesting the stored milk, often with additional symptoms, such as vomiting and diarrhea.
- Severe infection: In rare cases, feeding spoiled milk to babies can lead to life-threatening infections, such as Cronobacter Sakazakii infection (6). This infection can cause severe health issues, such as meningitis and sepsis (6). It is why the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend rigorously following the guidelines for proper handling and storage of human breast milk (4).
Some other symptoms that may arise due to spoiled milk consumption are dehydration leading to excessive sleepiness and inactivity, dark-colored urine, and fewer wet nappies than usual. If you suspect your baby has any health issues and related signs due to breast milk consumption, consult a pediatrician for guidance.
Tips To Prevent Expressed/Pumped Breast Milk From Spoiling
- Wash your hands and breasts with clean water and soap before pumping or expressing breast milk.
- Adequately clean and sanitize your breast pump and accessories, including the storage containers after every use.
- Discard the breast pump and its accessories if you notice a mold in their tubing or the equipment looks worn out.
- Tightly close the storage bottle or container’s lid so that the milk is safe from chemical oxidation and absorption of odor from other veggies and fruit.
- Thaw breast milk in order of storage, meaning thaw oldest breast milk first. Don’t refreeze thawed breast milk.
- Check stored breast milk for spoilage before feeding it to the baby. You may do so by checking the taste, color, and consistency of the breast milk.
- Don’t freeze the refrigerated milk to extend its storage time. You should keep the milk in the refrigerator immediately after pumping. The milk can stay in the refrigerator at 40°F (4°C) for four to six days. However, do not move the bottle to the freezer after six days to extend its storage life. When frozen immediately after pumping, the milk should preferably be consumed within six months if the freezer is separate from the refrigerator and two weeks if the freezer is inside the refrigerator (2). Always place freezer milk at the back of the freezer and never on the door.
- Never store breast milk in the door of the refrigerator. Place the milk container at the back of the refrigerator where the temperature is coldest and stable since it is unaffected by the door’s opening and closing.
- Place the storage container in an insulated cooler bag or cool towel for a few minutes if you cannot immediately place it in the refrigerator. Freshly expressed or pumped breast milk can stay consumable at 60 to 85°F (16 to 29°C) for up to four hours. Remember, the longer the milk stays outside, the higher the chances of it going rancid.
- Keep the breast milk away from direct sunlight, heat, and air until you store it in the refrigerator or freezer.
- Avoid untreated tap water use for cleaning of breast milk storage accessories to prevent milk’s chemical oxidation during storage. You may also restrict supplements rich in unsaturated fats, such as fish oil tablets, if your breast milk is sensitive to oxidation and goes rancid easily.
You invest considerable time and effort in pumping breast milk and storing it safely. Mothers do this to feed breast milk to their babies even when they are not around. Understanding the signs that indicate breast milk spoilage can help assure your efforts are paying off. Besides, it prevents unnecessary milk wastage that often happens when mothers or caregivers misidentify breast milk as spoiled.
2. Storing Human Milk; La Leche League International
3. Milk Issues; La Leche League International
4. Proper Storage and Preparation of Breast Milk; CDC
5. Bottle Refusal; IABLE
6. Madhura Sundararajan et al.; Notes from the Field: Cronobacter sakazakii Meningitis in a Full-Term Neonate Fed Exclusively with Breast Milk — Indiana, 2018; NCBI
7. Rowena McMullan et al.; Cronobacter sakazakii Infection from Expressed Breast Milk, Australia; NCBI
8. Pumping and storing breastmilk; U.S Department of Health And Human Services