Hip dysplasia in babies, also known as hip dysplasia or developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH), is a rare musculoskeletal condition where the hip joint is partially or completely dislocated. The dislocation occurs when the femur’s head (ball) doesn’t fit into the pelvis (hip socket) properly, causing the ball-and-socket structure to fail (1).
According to the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), hip dysplasia can be congenital or develop during a child’s first year (2). It can affect one or both hip joints, and the severity varies depending on the extent of dislocation. However, early diagnosis and prompt treatment can enable a baby to live a happy and active life.
Read on to know more about the symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of hip dysplasia in babies.
Signs And Symptoms Of Hip Dysplasia
- Both the legs are of different lengths, wherein the leg on the affected side appears shorter
- Limited range of motion in the leg on the affected side, causing a limp while walking
- Uneven skin folds or creases in the thigh or hips
- Foot bulging outwards
- Inability to move one or both legs correctly
- Clicking sensation during hip movement; a condition known as hip clicks
In older babies and young children, the most prominent signs are the following.
- Delay in standing or walking without assistance
- Body bent to one side while standing or walking
- Clumsy walking with limping or dwindling movement
Possible Causes Of Hip Dysplasia
- Hormones: Maternal hormonal changes during labor relax the mother’s ligaments and muscles for childbirth. Some babies could be sensitive to these hormones and may develop excessively relaxed joints, increasing the risk of hip dislocation. Girls tend to display greater ligament laxity, and more estrogen effects, making them five times more likely to develop hip dysplasia than boys.
- Breech position: Babies in the breech position (head up and legs towards the birth canal) are more prone to hip dysplasia. The breech position could stretch the baby’s legs inside the womb, affecting the normal development of the hip joint and increasing the risk of hip dysplasia.
- Incorrect swaddling: Straightening the baby’s legs before swaddling could exert excess pressure on the hip joint, increasing the risk of hip dysplasia. A baby should have adequate room to move and bend their legs even when swaddled to prevent hip dislocation.
- Genetics: According to the International Hip Displacement Institute, babies with a family history of hip dysplasia are 12 times more likely to develop the condition (6). If the parent had hip dysplasia, and so did their baby, there is a 36% chance of having another baby with the same condition.
Some other musculoskeletal conditions or deformities, such as foot deformities or neck stiffness (torticollis), may increase hip dysplasia risk. The reason is that these conditions may lead to space constraints in the womb, increasing the risk of other problems, including hip dysplasia.
Diagnosis Of Hip Dysplasia
Doctors and midwives check for the presence of hip dysplasia at different time intervals, such as baby’s birth, six weeks after birth, and when they begin to walk (4). In case a hip problem is suspected, further tests are conducted.
- Physical examination: The doctor will examine the baby’s hip joints and ask about the birth position and any family history of hip problems. Your doctor will also listen and feel for “clicks” by maneuvering the hip. Based on the evaluation, the doctor can order diagnostic tests for further confirmation.
- Ultrasound imaging: Ultrasound imaging or sonography evaluates the hip joint, focussing on the fusion of the femoral head (ball) and the socket. It helps determine if the dislocation is partial or complete and whether it needs any specific treatment. Sonograms are a suitable way to diagnose hip dysplasia in babies aged six months or younger.
- X-rays: After six months of age, the cartilage starts to harden into bones. X-rays can help visualize the bones and joints in older babies. In some cases, the doctor may also suggest an MRI.
Treatment For Hip Dysplasia
The treatment for hip dysplasia depends on the baby’s age and the severity of the symptoms. The main aim of the treatment is to rectify joint dislocation and restore normal hip function (3) (4) (6) (7).
- Wait and watch: The doctor may choose a wait-and-watch strategy if the baby is younger than three months and has mild hip dysplasia with a mostly stable hip. The reason is that babies have soft bones (cartilages) that are still developing, and these can fuse naturally over time without any medical intervention.
- Pavlik harness: Babies with an unstable hip joint or shallow socket may require a Pavlik harness. It is a positioning device that holds the baby’s hip in place while allowing some leg movement. It is used on babies up to four months of age. In most cases, babies need to wear a Pavlik harness full-time for six to 12 weeks, with part-time wearing for a few additional weeks.
- Abduction brace: If a Pavlik harness does not correct hip dysplasia, the baby may require a lightweight abduction brace, which supports the baby’s hips and pelvis. The baby may need to wear it for eight to 12 weeks.
If non-surgical interventions do not work, the baby could require adjustment of the hip bone under anesthesia or surgical correction.
- Closed-reduction procedure: The baby is administered anesthesia. The doctor proceeds to perform an arthrogram, a procedure where a contrast agent is injected into the joint for better visibility during imaging tests, such as X-rays or MRI. The joint is manually adjusted to its correct position with the help of images from imaging tests — a procedure known as closed reduction. The baby’s legs and hips are then held in their correct position by a spica cast, which the baby wears for three to six months. A closed-reduction procedure may be preferred if the baby’s age is between six months and two years.
- Open-reduction surgery: If the closed-reduction procedure does not correct hip dysplasia, the baby could need open-reduction surgery. In this surgery, the surgeon adjusts the hip to its correct position. Depending on the case’s severity, the surgery may include other procedures, such as reshaping the hip socket. After the surgery, your baby will wear a spica cast until they heal. Open-reduction surgery may be preferred if the baby’s age is more than two years.
After surgery, an orthopedist will periodically review the baby’s hip joint to ensure its normal development. Your doctor will also guide you about the appropriate ways to perform daily activities while the baby is wearing a cast. Once the baby’s hip joint is in its correct position, the cast is removed.
Possible Complications Of Hip Dysplasia
In most cases, early diagnosis and treatment help in the normal development of the hip joint. Below are some possible complications that may occur during treatment.
- Babies and toddlers with the spica cast may learn to walk later than their peers due to wearing the cast for a long time.
- Positioning devices, such as the Pavlik harness and abduction brace, may cause skin irritation around the straps in sensitive babies.
- Severe cases of hip dislocation may cause a permanent difference in leg length. In rare cases, the bone’s growth may be permanently affected due to hip dysplasia.
A higher chance of complications exists if treatment is started at a later age since bones and growth plates become harder with age.
Is Hip Dysplasia Preventable?
It may not always be possible to prevent hip dysplasia. You may take some precautions to avert the risk factors that increase hip dysplasia’s chances in babies.
- Avoid swaddling your baby too tightly. Remember, you need to snuggle your baby gently in the swaddling cloth such that they can move their legs freely.
- Keep up with your pediatrician’s appointments, especially during the first six months of the baby’s life. Many cases of hip dysplasia could be detected during a routine checkup.
- Place your baby in a baby carrier in the “M” position. This position allows the baby’s hip to spread in the squat format, preventing any strain on the hip joint.
Frequently Asked Questions
1. What happens if hip dysplasia is left untreated?
2. How common is hip dysplasia in newborns?
Hip dysplasia may occur in around one in 1000 newborns (10).
Hip dysplasia in babies is a rare condition requiring prompt treatment. This condition in babies is painless but may turn painful and bothersome as they grow older. In most cases, timely diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help a baby lead an active, pain-free life.
- Both legs being different lengths and foot bulging outwards are a few symptoms of dysplasia in babies.
- Ultrasound imaging and X-ray can help diagnose this problem in infants.
- Both non-surgical and surgical treatments can be given based on the baby’s age.
- Delay in walking and skin irritation are a few complications that may occur during treatment.
2. Hip Dysplasia; Healthy Children; AAP
3. Hip Dysplasia in Babies; Boston Children’s Hospital
4. Hip dysplasia in babies; Pregnancy, Birth and Baby’s
5. Developmental dysplasia of the hip; NHS
6. Understanding Hip Dysplasia; International Hip Dysplasia Institute
7. Developmental Dislocation (Dysplasia) of the Hip (DDH); American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
8. Stephanie Pun; Hip dysplasia in the young adult caused by residual childhood and adolescent-onset dysplasia; National Library of Medicine (2016)
9. Hip Dysplasia; Penn Medicine
10. Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip (DDH); Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia