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Low Blood Pressure In Teens: Causes, Symptoms And Treatment

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Children in their teens are energetic and physically active. Sometimes they overdo the physical activities and could have lightheadedness due to a drop in the blood pressure.

Yes, blood pressure can fluctuate in teens as well. However, low blood pressure in teens is not bothersome unless the fainting spells become frequent.

Here, MomJunction tells you about the reasons for low blood pressure in teenagers, its symptoms, and preventive measures to be taken.

What Is Low Blood Pressure In Teens?

Low blood pressure is when the blood pressure (BP) levels are less than the normal. The normal blood pressure for a teenager is 110/70mmHg (1). (BP is measured in millimeters of mercury denoted as mmHg, and features two numbers: one that indicates the upper first value (systolic) followed by the lower (diastolic) value.)

In children aged ten years or less, blood pressure lower than 90/50mmHg is defined as low blood pressure or hypotension (2).

There are three different types of low blood pressure, the symptoms of which can range from mild to severe. They are (3):

  • Neurally mediated hypotension (NMH): It occurs when the child stands for a long time or encounters an upsetting or scary situation. It causes dizziness. However, children usually outgrow NMH.
  • Orthostatic hypotension: It occurs while standing up suddenly from a sitting or lying position. It happens when the body is unable to adjust to the sudden change in the blood flow. However, the blood pressure will be back to normal after a few seconds.
  • Severe hypotension: It can develop due to severe infections, allergic reactions, severe blood loss due to an injury, or a shock. Severe hypotension can cause complications by preventing the blood from reaching the brain, thus making it a life-threatening condition. In such cases, immediate medical attention is necessary.

There could be various reasons for low blood pressure in teens. Find out more about it next.

What Causes Low Blood Pressure In Teens?

A drop in the blood pressure level could be due to many factors. Underlying health issues or the lifestyle can lead to low blood pressure in teenagers. Common causes of low blood pressure in teens include:

  • Anaphylaxis (a life-threatening allergic reaction that can be due to food, insect bite, or medication) (4).
  • Arrhythmia (abnormal heart rhythm due to ineffective pumping by the heart) (5)
  • Certain medications
  • Dehydration
  • Drinking alcohol (teenagers) (6)
  • Infections

Observe the symptoms to know if everything is alright with the child.

What Are The Symptoms Of Low Blood Pressure In Teenagers?

Most symptoms of hypotension may be recurrent but don’t usually last for a long time. Watch out for the following symptoms, and consult the doctor if they persist (7):

  • Blurred vision
  • Confusion
  • Dizziness
  • Fainting
  • Feeling weak
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Sleepiness

The next section talks about diagnostic methods for low blood pressure in children.

How Is It Diagnosed?

The doctor will begin the diagnosis by checking the teen’s medical and family health history. This is followed by a physical examination and a few tests including cardiac examinations.

  • Auscultation method: It is a preferred method for checking blood pressure, wherein the sound from the heart is heard using a stethoscope. It requires a cuff that fits the child’s upper arm.
  • Blood tests: If anemia is suspected to be the reason for low blood pressure in the child, then a blood test is done. Low blood sugar can also cause hypotension, which can be evaluated through the blood test (3).
  • Electrocardiography: It is a standard screening tool used for detecting cardiac abnormalities in children and adolescents. The heart rate and the rhythm are evaluated through this diagnostic approach, which is typically used in the diagnosis of syncope that benign NMH can cause (8).
  • Tilt table test: If a child complains of dizziness for unknown reasons, then this test is done. During the test, the child has to lie on a table that tilts from a horizontal to a vertical or upright position. The doctor checks the child’s reaction when the table is tilted, to diagnose orthostatic hypotension (9), (10).

Based on the diagnosis, your doctor will suggest the appropriate treatment for hypotension.

How Is Low Blood Pressure Treated?

Low blood pressure is associated with mild symptoms and rarely requires any treatment. If hypotension is due to the medication that your child has been taking for any other health problem, then the doctor may change the medication, lower its dosage, or advice to stop using it.

If your child is diagnosed with NMH, then the doctor suggests changes in their lifestyle and advises you to provide adequate fluids and salt. If that doesn’t work, then medication is recommended. Pediatric patients with NMH are given beta-blockers and 0.2mg of fludrocortisone every morning (8).

How To Prevent Low Blood Pressure In Teenagers?

If the child has mild symptoms of low blood pressure, then minor changes in the lifestyle are enough to prevent any problems. Here are a few measures to take (11)

  • Avoid dehydration – encourage them to take a lot of fluids.
  • Use adequate salt in the diet.
  • Make them eat a balanced diet to provide all the essential nutrients to the body.
  • Tell them to avoid standing up suddenly from a sitting position.
  • Let them eat smaller meals at regular intervals and cut down on the intake of carbohydrates.
  • Ask them to wear compression stockings.
  • If they have light-headedness or dizziness., let them lie down for a few minutes.
  • Sitting down and putting the head between the knees will help get the blood pressure back to normal.

A proper diet, along with the above tips, can help manage low blood pressure better.

Diet For Low Blood Pressure In Teens

Sometimes, blood pressure drops due to the poor supply of essential nutrients in the body. A balanced diet can help replenish these nutrients and elevate the blood pressure level.

  • Include vitamin B12-rich foods such as eggs and fortified cereals as they help prevent anemia. Eat egg in boiled or scrambled form.
  • Foods such as asparagus and broccoli that are rich in folic acid also help in keeping anemia at bay (12).
  • Teenage girls should take iron-rich foods like green leafy vegetables, beans, and lentils to compensate for the blood loss during menstruation.

The best way to deal with hypotension in teens is to follow a healthy lifestyle of a balanced diet and physical activity. Also, adequate rest and proper intake of fluids can keep low blood pressure at bay. If these changes do not help, you should consult your doctor for advice on how to manage the condition better.

Do you have any experiences to share about hypotension in teens? Share it with us in the comments section.

References:

1. High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents; Stanford Children’s Health
2. Ashish Banker, Cynthia Bell, et al.; Blood pressure percentile charts to identify high or low blood pressure in children; NCBI
3. Hypotension; NIH
4. Anaphylaxis; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
5. Arrhythmias in Children; Stanford Children’s Health
6. Lorena Siqueira, MD and Vincent C. Smith; Binge Drinking; American Academy of Pediatrics
7. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension); Regents of the University of Michigan
8. The Evaluation and Management of Pediatric Syncope; Pediatric Neurology
9. Tilt-Table Test; American Heart Association, Inc
10. Evaluation and Management of Orthostatic Hypotension; American Academy of Family Physicians
11. Low Blood Pressure in Children; Nicklaus Children’s Hospital
12. Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiencies; American Association for Clinical Chemistry

 

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shreeja pillai

Postgraduate in Chemistry and content writer. She has worked as a research analyst with a leading multinational pharmaceutical company and also holds a diploma in pharmaceutical regulatory affairs. Her interest in the field of medical research has developed her passion for writing research-based articles. She is a writer for MomJunction and aims at providing informative articles based on health and wellness. Apart from writing, she takes a great interest in music and traveling. know more about her at https://www.linkedin.com/in/shreeja-pillai/
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