Amenorrhea in teens can be due to various reasons ranging from lifestyle factors, hormonal issues, and congenital anatomical disabilities. This is missed periods for more than three months or a complete absence of menstruation. The first menstruation (menarche) usually occurs around 12-13 years, and nearly 98% of girls have their menarche by 15 (1). It is recommended to seek medical care if your girl’s menstruation has not begun by this age or has missed periods for more than three months. Doctors may recommend pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions for amenorrhea based on diagnostic tests and pelvic ultrasound findings.
Read on to know the causes, signs, complications, and amenorrhea treatments for missed periods in teens.
What Is Amenorrhea In A Teen?
The absence of menstrual periods is called amenorrhea. There are two types of amenorrhea (2):
- Primary amenorrhea: This refers to the absence of menarche by the age of 15 years.
- Secondary amenorrhea: This refers to the absence of menstrual periods for three months or more in otherwise healthy menstruating teens.
Missed periods are normal and common during the first and second years of menstruation. They can be caused due to a lack of ovulation every month. However, your teen may require a gynecology consultation to determine the cause, if this persists.
Causes Of Missed Periods In Teenagers
Causes of amenorrhea in teenage girls include (3):
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS): This may cause hormonal imbalances and ovulation failure, thus leading to amenorrhea.
- Under or overactive thyroid gland: Thyroid hormones can interfere with ovulation.
- Obesity and underweight: These factors may affect the hormones that regulate the menstrual cycle and trigger amenorrhea.
- Heavy workouts (athletes) and dieting: Low body fat, stress, and high energy use could interrupt normal periods.
- Eating disorders such as anorexia: These could cause extreme weight loss and affect hormone levels, thus causing amenorrhea.
- Pituitary tumors: Pituitary tumors, such as prolactinomas, can disruptnormal hormone levels and cause amenorrhea.
- Structural abnormalities of the reproductive system: Absence of reproductive organs; and various other defects which your doctor will be able to diagnose
- Pregnancy: During pregnancy,hormone levels change, and the endometrium is not shed; therefore, there is a natural absence of menstruation.
- Stress: This may affect the function of the hypothalamus in regulating the menstrual cycle.
- Birth control pills, IUDs, and shots: Hormonal contraceptives interfere with menstruation due to the suppression of ovulation. Sometimes, it may take a while to return to the normal cycle even after the cessation of contraceptive use.
- Medications and drug interactions: Certain drugs could interfere with menstrual hormones or hypothalamic regulation of hormonal function and suppress ovulation, thus resulting in amenorrhea.
The most common cause of missed periods after the first year of menarche is pregnancy . Chronic illnesses such as tuberculosis, inflammatory bowel disease, etc., may also cause amenorrhea.
Symptoms Of Missed Periods In Teens
Lack of menstrual bleeding is the main symptom of amenorrhea. The other signs and symptoms may depend on the cause.
These may include (4):
- Weight loss or gain: This can be seen in teenage athletes and those with eating disorders and thyroid problems.
- Facial hair, hair loss, acne: These symptoms can be associated with polycystic ovarian disease and other hormonal imbalances.
- Morning sickness: Nausea and vomiting can often be seen in the case of pregnancy.
These are signs and symptoms of conditions that may contribute to amenorrhea. You may visit your teen’s healthcare provider for an accurate diagnosis.
Risk For Amenorrhea In Teens
Teenage athletes and teens with the following conditions may have a higher risk for amenorrhea (5):
- Eating disorders
- Thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism
- Structural defects
Complications Of Amenorrhea In Teens
The possible complications of amenorrhea include (6):
- Infertility: Pregnancy can become difficult or not possible if missed periods are due to a lack of ovulation or specific structural abnormalities.
- Bone thinning: Missed periods may occur as a result of low levels of estrogen hormones. Low estrogen levels may contribute to osteoporosis or thinning of the bones in the long-term.
If your teen’s estrogen levels are low, her doctor may recommend calcium supplements to prevent osteoporosis in the future. Due to recent advances in medicine, infertility can be treated with various methods. However, a thorough assessment could help your teen’s healthcare provider to take necessary measures to prevent these complications.
When To See The Doctor?
It is advised to get a medical consultation after your teen’s first period itself. If your teen has irregular periods or missed periods, make an appointment with a gynecologist to identify the cause and take preventive measures if required.
If your teen has any symptoms of thyroid disorders, eating disorders, or stress, seek medical care. You may take a doctor’s advice regarding nutrition and exercises if your teen is an athlete.
If your teen is pregnant, you may seek medical care for the evaluation of both the mother and baby. An early prenatal visit could help reduce the risk of complications associated with teen pregnancy and delivery.
Diagnosis Of Amenorrhea In Teens
Your teen’s doctor may ask about the symptoms and menstrual history of your teen. They may also do a physical examination, including a pelvic exam, to look for any visible abnormalities or signs of conditions that cause amenorrhea.
Amenorrhea is diagnosed in the following scenarios (7):
- Absence of menarche by the age of 15 years
- Lack of menstruation for three months or more in a girl with regular cycles
- Missed menstruation for six months or more in a girl with irregular cycles
The following tests may be ordered to identify the underlying cause of amenorrhea (7):
- Blood tests: Hormone levels, pregnancy, thyroid disorder
- Urine analysis: pregnancy and overall health
- Pelvic ultrasound: Ultrasonographic imaging of the pelvic area can help identify the structural causes of amenorrhea.
Your teen may also require a few additional tests and consultations to confirm or exclude the diagnosis of possible underlying causes. These tests are usually suggested by your teen’s doctor.
Treatments For Missed Periods In Teens
Treatment depends on the cause of amenorrhea and its severity. The symptoms, health status, and age of your teen are also considered to decide the treatment.
Treatments for missed periods may include (8):
- Progesterone hormone therapy
- Hormone therapy using oral contraceptives (birth control pills)
- Correction of thyroid hormone with hormone supplements or medication
- Surgeries for structural anomalies
- Changes in diet and exercise plans
- Management of eating disorders
- Calcium supplements
Your teen’s doctor may consider the risks, benefits, and side effects of medicines before prescribing them. Surgical treatments are given in the case of uterine scarring, repairable structural anomalies, and pituitary tumors.
These medications are given based on individual cases, and the type of medicine and dosage may vary for each teen. You should not provide any hormonal or other treatments to your teen without the supervision of a healthcare provider. It may harm their reproductive and general health.
Prevention Of Missed Periods In Teenagers
A few causes of amenorrhea can be prevented with a specific diet or lifestyle modifications. However, these may not always be the reason for missed periods. Therefore, it is good to see a healthcare provider for guidance (2).
You may encourage your teen to exercise and follow healthy eating habits from an early age. Do not hesitate to consult a doctor if you notice unusual weight changes, eating disorders, or stress in your teen.
Missed periods in teens may be common in the first two years of menstruation and may occur due to obesity, underweight, eating disorders, pituitary tumors, etc. Teenagers with missed periods may experience facial hair, gain or loss in weight, and nausea. Treatment depends on the severity of the condition and may include hormone therapy, calcium supplements, diet changes, or surgical interventions. You can prevent missed periods with a healthy diet and regular physical activity in many cases. It is also important to provide appropriate sex education to teenagers to prevent unintended teen pregnancies or sexually transmitted diseases.
2. Amenorrhea; Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia
3. Amenorrhea in teens; Nicklaus Children’s Hospital
4. Amenorrhea; American Academy of Family Physicians
5. Amenorrhea in teens; University of Rochester Medical Center (URMC)
6. Amenorrhea; NCH Healthcare System
7. David A. Klein, and Merrily A. Poth; Amenorrhea: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management; American Academy of Family Physicians
8. What are the treatments for amenorrhea?; The Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; The National Institutes of Health