Ovarian cysts or ovarian masses are fluid-filled structures formed during the menstruation period every month. They are a common occurrence for most women and are usually benign and harmless (1).
The size of an ovarian cyst could range from one centimeter to about ten centimeters or more in diameter (2). An ovarian cyst developed in the pre-pregnancy period can continue to grow throughout pregnancy. Sometimes, an ovarian cyst during pregnancy could twist and rupture during childbirth. In rare cases, a cyst might turn malignant or cancerous. In such situations, medical consultation and therapies are considered.
This post contains details on the causes of ovarian cysts during pregnancy, symptoms of being pregnant with ovarian cysts, and how the condition is treated.
What Are Types Of Ovarian Cysts?
1. Functional cysts
These are the most commonly found ovarian cysts and are typically benign. The functional cysts can further be classified into two categories.
- Follicle cyst: The follicle on the ovary is a sac that contains the egg. During ovulation, the follicle breaks open and releases the egg. It develops into a follicular cyst when it fails to break open to release the egg, and fluids accumulate inside the follicle. A follicular cyst does not require any treatment and heals on its own within three months.
- Corpus luteum cyst: Following the release of the egg, the follicle contracts into a structure called the corpus luteum. The corpus luteum starts to release hormones, such as progesterone and estrogen, to prepare for the next menstruation period. Corpus luteum cyst develops when the follicle does not contract and seals immediately after releasing the egg. This leads to fluid accumulation. The corpus luteumcyst could sometimes be harmful by causing bleeding or twisting of the ovary.
Teratoma is usually composed of various tissues such as skin and hair. This type of ovarian cyst develops at birth. However, it might show signs of growth at the menarche stage of a woman’s life and continue to grow till menopause.
3. Dermoid cyst
They are congenital. Dermoid cysts are composed of tissues that make up the hair, skin, and teeth. Dermoid cysts are mostly benign and do not show any symptoms.
4. Cystadenoma cyst
These cysts grow outside the ovary from its outer lining tissue and are mostly benign. Cystadenoma are multilocular cysts and are filled with fluid-like mucus.
Endometrioid cysts spring from endometriosis, a condition where the tissue lining the uterus (endometrium) starts to grow outside the uterus.
What Causes Ovarian Cysts During Pregnancy?
- After the egg is released from the follicle, rather than contracting into the corpus luteum, it seals itself back, and fluid begins to accumulate inside it. This leads to the development of a corpus luteum cyst during pregnancy. These cysts mostly subside towards fourteen to sixteen weeks of gestation without posing any threat to the expecting mother’s
- Ectopic pregnancy, a condition where the egg adheres to the outside of the uterus, could also lead to cyst formation during pregnancy.
- Another type of benign tumor called theca lutein cyst could also be seen during pregnancy. It mostly arises due to increased levels of hCG and is more common in the case of twin pregnancy.
What Are The Symptoms Of Ovarian Cysts?
- Pain in the pelvic region and faint backaches
- A swollen or overblown abdomen
- A sense of pressure or pain in the bowel or while defecating
- Pain during urination
- In case of a ruptured cyst, swollen abdomen with severe pain
- Abnormal or painful periods
What Are The Complications Of Ovarian Cyst?
Most ovarian cysts during pregnancy are benign and may show no symptoms. However, if the cyst continues growing through pregnancy and even until childbirth, there could be a risk of the ovarian cyst getting ruptured. A condition called ovarian torsion might also occur where the cyst weighs the ovary down, causing it to twist.
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) could be at a high risk of developing high blood pressure, premature delivery, and miscarriage. Regular doctor visits could help avail the right treatment at the right time (7).
Is It Safe To Remove An Ovarian Cyst During Pregnancy?
There is usually no need to remove ovarian cysts during pregnancy. The corpus luteum cyst produces pregnancy hormones to support the pregnancy and goes away on its own after a few weeks of pregnancy. However, certain cysts, such as ectopic pregnancy cyst, may require surgical removal.
In case a cyst starts to ooze blood or imparts pain, a laparoscopic surgery might be recommended. Here, the cyst is removed via a small cut made in the abdomen. Your healthcare provider will weigh the risks and benefits of cyst removal to your and your baby’s health before proceeding with a procedure.
Can An Ovarian Cyst Burst During Pregnancy?
Generally, an ovarian cyst rupture does not pose a threat to the expecting mother’s health or the baby. It usually fades away with time and might not require any medical interference. However, under certain conditions, it could lead to various complications.
Sometimes, ovarian cysts may form in response to an infection, such as pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In PID, sexually transmitted bacteria infect any one or more of the reproductive organs. If such an infected cyst ruptures, it could become fatal and lead to septicemia. Under such conditions, doctors might recommend taking antibiotics or surgery, depending on the severity of the infection (8).
How To Know You Have An Ovarian Cyst Rupture?
Some of the symptoms indicating an ovarian cyst rupture might include (8):
- Unexpected and acute pain in the lower abdomen and the back
- Bleeding from the vagina
- Abdominal bloating is accompanied by a sharp pain
- Dizziness and tendency to vomit
- High body temperature
How To Know You Have An Ovarian Cyst Torsion?
Ovarian cyst torsion refers to the state of an ovary, or sometimes the fallopian tubes when they twist on the tissues surrounding the ovary. This leads to the obstruction of blood flow to the ovary. Immediate surgery is the only accepted treatment in order to avoid the loss of an ovary.
The symptoms of ovarian cyst torsion include (9):
- Random and acute abdominal pain
- A sense of vomiting and dizziness
Do Ovarian Cysts Affect Fertility?
- Endometriosis:It refers to the condition where the inner lining of the uterus starts to grow on the outside of the uterus, such as on the ovary. A cyst formed due to endometriosis can affect fertility.
- Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): It refers to a condition where multiple cysts develop on the ovary. The presence of PCOS makes it difficult for the ovary to produce female hormones and release eggs from the follicles, affecting a woman’s health. Cysts developed as a result of PCOS may lead to infertility.
How Are Ovarian Cysts In Pregnancy Diagnosed?
Ovarian cysts can be diagnosed via different tests and medical exams (1).
- Ultrasound: An endovaginal or transvaginal ultrasound is carried out to view any abnormality in the reproductive organs. This method makes use of a device called a transducer, which produces sound waves. The transducer is positioned in the vagina, and the sound waves help locate and visualize the cyst.
- Blood test: Your OB-GYN may also carry out blood tests to detect the level of CA 125. Test for CA 125, besides ultrasound, is carried out to determine if there is any risk of the ovarian cyst turning cancerous. CA 125 is a protein in the body that acts as a tumor marker. An increased level of tumor marker could indicate ovarian cancer, especially in menopausal women.
How Are Ovarian CystsTreated?
Ovarian cysts with no symptoms generally require monitoring with no specific treatment. Ovarian cysts with symptoms and recurring ovarian cysts could require treatment (3) (10). The mode of treatment may vary depending on the stage of pregnancy and your general health.
Medication might be prescribed to reduce the size of the cyst initially, and many women may find relief from symptoms. However, if the cyst continues to grow and causes extreme pain and bleeding, the doctor might suggest surgery through any of the following methods.
- Laparoscopy: It is mostly carried out for cysts that are benign. A small cut is made in the lower abdomen, and a tube fitted with a camera is slid through the cut to view and remove the cyst.
- Laparotomy: Here, the doctor makes a bigger cut in the abdomen for the removal of the cyst. It is usually carried out for cysts that appear to be malignant.
Ovarian cysts during pregnancy are a common occurrence, and most are benign and harmless. Nevertheless, it is good to see a doctor if you experience symptoms that could indicate ovarian cysts. Timely diagnosis and treatment could help prevent any complications for you and your baby and ensure a healthy delivery.
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