What Causes Secondary Infertility And How To Cope With It?

Secondary Infertility

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You have a child and want another one now. But for some reason, you are having trouble conceiving the second time.

The inability to conceive again or to carry the pregnancy following the birth of one or more children is referred to as secondary infertility. According to the US Center for Disease Control (CDC), 11% of couples who have had at least one child might have secondary infertility issues. This is approximately four million families or nearly half of the total infertility cases (1) in the US.

Here, MomJunction tells you about secondary infertility, what causes it and ways to get off it.

What Are The Causes Of Secondary Infertility?

Of the many factors that lead to secondary infertility, some are related to female infertility while some to male infertility. Then there are another set of problems that are unexplained (2).

1. Advancing age:

Age is a significant factor that plays a role in secondary infertility. A woman is born with eggs which she can utilize for a lifetime. But as she ages, the ovarian reserve falls. It means both the egg quality and quantity diminish. Therefore, a long gap after the birth of a child can have an impact on the fertility, if the mother has a late pregnancy.

2. Structural issues in the reproductive system:

Endometriosis, pelvic adhesion, prior abdominal surgeries and abnormalities in the fallopian tube can greatly affect the reproductive system and therefore conception.

3. Male factor:

Like a woman’s fertility, a man’s fertility also diminishes with time, both in terms of the quality and quantity of the sperm. This could be due to aging, medications or health condition.

4. Weight gain:

Excessive weight has a high impact on a person’s ability to conceive. It contributes to ovarian failure in women, and increased erectile dysfunction and decreased sperm production in men. Smoking also has a similar effect on fertility.

Secondary infertility can be a result of any of the above causes or a combination of them. Sometimes, you or even your doctor cannot pinpoint the reason. Still, you need to see a doctor.

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When Should You See A Doctor?

Time plays a key role in fertility; therefore, you need to be proactive in seeking the treatment. You should consult a specialist if you:

  • Are under 35, and have been trying to conceive for one year without any success.
  • Are above 35, and have been trying for at least six months without success.
  • Have had two consecutive miscarriages.
  • Are over 30 with a history of painful periods, miscarriages, irregular menstrual cycle, or pelvic inflammatory disease. In such a case, you must refrain from waiting for more than one year after having a child.

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The Emotional Impact Of Secondary Infertility

When you are dealing with secondary infertility, it is normal to struggle with a gamut of emotions. Inability to conceive the second time can lead to an emotional turmoil, with common emotions you feel being (3):

  • Anger, because you had a child previously but now the happiness is eluding you
  • Frustration, since conceiving was so easy last time but not now
  • Envy, as your friends and relatives have easily had more than one child
  • Isolation, due to the feeling that you cannot fit in any group. Fertility issues can cause a strain on your relationship, and you will feel left out
  • Guilt that you are not able to give your child a sibling
  • Sorrow, realizing you cannot experience another joyful pregnancy
  • Weariness, for not being successful and from scheduling doctor appointments time and again
  • Sadness, for the loss of childbearing opportunities
  • Hurt when you are invited to your friends baby shower or when they announce pregnancies

Amidst all the negativity, you may also feel a little hopeful because every month is a new start.

If you think that you are unable to conceive despite your best efforts, it is time to go to a doctor for a diagnosis.

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How Is Secondary Infertility Diagnosed?

The diagnostic procedures are the same for secondary infertility and primary infertility and both the man and woman need to be tested.

Diagnosis in a woman is done through a comprehensive analysis of the menstrual cycle. This is followed by extensive tests, including hysteroscopy or hysterosalpingogram (HSG) to detect the uterine cavity and test for fallopian tube blockages (4).

For a man, it includes testing for blood disorders and sperm count or semen analysis.

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What Is The Treatment For Secondary Infertility?

Treatment for secondary infertility depends on what is causing it. The possible treatment options include:

1. Infertility medications:

Oral medications such as letrozole and Clomid (clomiphene citrate) help trigger the ovarian follicles to release eggs. Medications that could be injected include follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, which stimulate multiple egg production (5).

2. Intrauterine insemination (IUI):

It involves collecting a semen sample (either from partner or donor), concentrating and then placing it in the uterine cavity at the time of ovulation. This helps in placing the sperm close to the fallopian tube where fertilization takes place (6).

3. In vitro fertilization (IVF):

The egg and sperm are combed in the special laboratory conditions to form an embryo, and then transferred into the uterine cavity.

Sometimes, surgery is needed to improve the chances of fertility and conception.

Rather than relying only on the above treatment methods, you and your partner can also try the natural remedies for treating infertility.

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What Are The Natural Measures Against Secondary Infertility?

Following are some natural ways of improving your chances of getting pregnant again.

1. Regular sex:

Make love regularly as it can optimize your chances of conception (7). Do not resist the desire to have sex. Indulge in intercourse whenever you and your partner feel like rather than focusing only on those four to five fertile days.

2. Improve diet and lifestyle:

Both you and your partner should follow a healthy diet and try to maintain an ideal weight. Your ideal BMI should be around 19 to 25, or 20 to 25 as some say, for improved chances of ovulation (8). Let your partner also check all the possibilities to eating healthily and lead a healthy lifestyle.

Refrain from alcohol and smoking as they can have negative effects on fertility. Your doctor may refer you to a rehab center if needed.

3. Accept your emotions:

You will go through a range of emotions, but remember you are not alone. Accepting your emotions is a part of the struggle. Try to cope with them by joining any support group, or talking with your doctor about better options.

4. Consider herbal remedies:

Ayurvedic herbs are believed to improve fertility, and lower the chances of secondary infertility. However, they lack scientific backing.

  • Shatavari (Asparagus racemosus): It contains rich phytoestrogens, similar to estrogens that help in regularizing menstruation and the reproductive system. This herb is known for treating issues related to stress, menopause, fertility and lactation (9).
  • Black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa): Treats female infertility and is believed to improve ovulation and stimulate ovaries (10).
  • Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera): Treats male infertility, delays aging, improves resistance to infections and increases tolerance to stress (11).
  • Chasteberry (Agnus castus): Treats female infertility, and is known to regulate menstruation and balance reproductive hormones (12).
  • Combination herbal medicine: The aqueous extract of the four herbs, Shatavari, Curculigo orchioides Gaertn, Chlorophytum borivilianum Sant. F and Dactylorhiza hatagirea, works in improving reproduction in men.

Medications or alternative treatments work better if you have a positive outlook. Do not lose hope because you might still have a chance to conceive, just like Jennifer did.

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A true story of how a woman had a successful pregnancy after secondary infertility treatment (13).

Jennifer and her husband, who were from the US coastal state of Oregon, had a successful first pregnancy. After that, they tried for a year to have another baby but had no success. Doctors diagnosed secondary infertility due to unknown causes.

The couple went for IUI treatment and got pregnant. But that turned out to be a loss, with a miscarriage in the first month of pregnancy. Even after repeated IUI treatments for about six times, they were not successful. Finally, with the second IVF treatment, Jennifer got pregnant and gave birth to twin babies.

There are many like Jennifer, who had suffered due to secondary infertility. But with accurate diagnosis and the appropriate treatment, they could conceive again. And so can you.

Infertility can be upsetting and infuriating. Try to get back your fertility through natural methods before trying expensive medications or surgeries that can that take a physical toll on you, your partner and child. Get back to healthy living with a nutritious diet, exercise, and clean lifestyle while minimizing exposure to toxins. When you are physically and mentally fit, the rest will slowly fall into place.

Have any experiences to share or tips for moms trying to conceive again? Please share them in the comments section below.

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Rebecca Malachi

She is a Biotechnologist with a proficiency in areas of genetics, immunology, microbiology, bio-engineering, chemical engineering, medicine, pharmaceuticals to name a few. Her expertise in these fields has greatly assisted her in writing medical and life science articles. With 8+ years of work experience in writing for health and wellness, she is now a full-time contributor for Momjunction.com. She is passionate about giving research-based information to readers in need. Apart from writing, she is a foodie, loves travel, fond of gospel music and enjoys observing nature in silence. Know more about her at: linkedin.com/in/kothapalli-rebecca-35881628
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