Typhoid fever, also known as enteric fever, is a systemic bacterial infection spread through contaminated food and water. It can be fatal if left untreated (1). Though the incidence is less in economically developed nations, it remains a significant cause of severe morbidities in babies and toddlers in low-income countries.
In this MomJunction post, we present you with information about causes, symptoms,diagnosis, and various treatment and prevention steps for typhoid in babies and toddlers.
Causes Of Typhoid In Babies And Toddlers
Typhoid fever is caused by bacterium Salmonella typhi. Babies and toddlers can get bacteria from the following sources (2).
- Contaminated food: It can be contaminated by the person, who prepares food without washing hands. Unwashed fruits, vegetables, uncooked shellfish, milk, and milk products typically get contaminated with typhoid bacteria.
- Drinks:Fruit juices and other drinks handled by people having the infection may cause the disease.
- Water: Water contaminated by sewage containing the typhoid bacteria.
- Contact with bird feces: Salmonella typhi lives in the gut of birds such as pigeons or chickens without causing them disease, but human contact with such feces may cause typhoid.
Typhoid is not transmitted to the baby from the mother who has the infection.. However, touching toys or baby’s hands without washing hands may cause typhoid when babies keep toys or hands in their mouth (3).
If a family member or caregiver gets infected with typhoid, then it is important to have it treated and take precautions to avoid spreading the disease to babies and toddlers.
Symptoms Of Typhoid In Babies And Toddlers
It may take one to two weeks after consuming contaminated food or drink to develop the symptoms of typhoid fever. It can be mild or severe symptoms, which often last up to four weeks or more. The following are some common symptoms(4).
- Fever that rises gradually to 39°C to 40°C (102°F to 104°F)
- Abdominal pain
- Coated tongue
- Constipation or diarrhea
- Rose-colored spots on the skin
- Sore throat
The fever in typhoid infection can last more than three days, and may follow a pattern where it gradually increases during the day until night and drops by the morning. The rose color rashes usually appear after a week,mostly on the chest or abdomen, and stay for three to four days.
What Are The Stages Of Typhoid Fever?
Clinical presentation of typhoid can occur in four stages. Each stage may last for a week. However, it is not always necessary that typhoid fever follows all the stages. The various stages of typhoid are (5):
- First stage: Body temperature starts to increase and antibodies are negative.
- Second stage: Typhoid antibody tests are positive. It is characterized by the presence of high fever, neurological manifestation, and rashes.
- Third stage: It is the period when complications may occur.
- Fourth stage: Recovery period where fever subsides.
Some people may become the carriers of salmonella bacteria after infection, even if they don’t have the symptoms of typhoid. An infected person can spread disease from the first week of illness until recovery. However, a person who does not follow a proper treatment for typhoid can spread the infection to others for several weeks and months (6).
What Are The Complications Of Typhoid?
If typhoid is left untreated, it may result in complications. Untreated typhoid can be life-threatening in babies and toddlers. It is recommended to seek immediate medical attention if your baby is ill with typhoid.
Complications may include (7):
- Bleeding of the stomach and intestines
- Bowel perforation
- Blood poisoning
- Severe dehydration
When To Seek Medical Attention
It is recommended to contact your doctor if your baby has symptoms of typhoid fever. It is advised to take your baby or toddler to the nearest hospital at the earliest if they have:
- Persistent vomiting
- Swollen tummy
- Fever lasting more than three days
Your doctor may start immediate treatment with antibiotics and also provide intravenous fluids to prevent dehydration as required (8).
Diagnosis Of Typhoid In Babies And Toddlers
The diagnosis of typhoid can be difficult in babies and toddlers. The pediatrician may ask the history of illness and look for signs of typhoid.
- The doctor will perform a physical examination to determine the presence of aslower heartbeat, swollen liver, and a swollen spleen.
- They may order blood tests and stool analysis to confirm typhoid fever. Blood culture is a standard test to confirm typhoid fever, and it can be positive in the first stage of the disease itself.
- Tests for typhoid antibodies such as Typhidot or Widal test can be ordered in the later stages of illness.
- The doctor might even ask for a complete blood count and other tests to rule out infections such as malaria, pneumonia, or dysentery (9)(10).
Treatment Of Typhoid In Babies And Toddlers
- Thedoctor may prescribe antibiotics for one or two weeks. Usually, fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin is prescribed if you are not in a resistant zone.
- Cephalosporin such as ceftriaxone or cefotaxime is prescribed in the case ofresistance to fluoroquinolones.
- Your doctor may recommend hospitalization if the baby is severely ill, dehydrated, and requiresintravenous medications, fluids, and nutrients. However, many children can be cared for at home during recovery.
It is important to complete the prescribed course of antibiotics, even if your baby feels well after a few days.Do not treat your child withantibiotics, without a doctor’s prescription.. Your doctor will prescribe the required antibiotic and dosage based on age, weight, and health status of your baby.
Home Remedies For Typhoid In Babies And Toddlers
Together with the prescribed antibiotic treatment, the following home treatments may help your baby or toddler recover from typhoid infection.
- Give a lot of fluids to cope with fluid loss from fever, vomiting, and diarrhea.
- Give oral rehydration solution (ORS) as per the pediatrician’s recommendation.
- Make sure that the baby is eating nutritious food.
- Breastfeed on regular intervals as much as required, if the baby is breastfed.
- Give frequent small meals to maintain energy level and aid proper digestion.
- Make sure that your baby is getting plenty of rest.
- Keep your baby clean.Wipe them with a wet towel if you do not want to give a bath.
- You may give cold compresses with a wet towel to reduce the temperature.
Healthy homemade soups, porridge, well-cooked eggs, steamed vegetables, fruits such as apples and bananas can help maintain your baby’s energy level if they are fed on solid food.
How To Prevent Typhoid In Babies And Toddlers?
- Typhoid conjugate vaccine (TCV)
- Ty21a (live vaccine given by mouth)
- Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (ViPS) (injectable vaccine)
The World Health Organization recommends typhoid vaccination for all children in endemic areas, for those who are at high risk, or during the outbreaks of typhoid. Some countries with few cases of typhoid fever, recommend typhoid vaccines, if you are traveling to the endemic areas.
TCV vaccine can be given to babies older than six months. Some types of typhoid vaccines may require booster doses during childhood. It is important to follow your pediatrician’s recommendations for your baby’s vaccinations (15).
- Use clean water for drinking and preparing food. You may use a water filter or boil the water.
- Wash fruits and vegetables in clean water before eating.
- Try not to give outside food to babies, especially uncooked.
- Practice hand hygiene before eating, before preparing baby foods, after changing baby diapers, and after using toilets.
A serious illness such as typhoid can be prevented by following some simple hygienic measures and getting recommended vaccines. Vaccinate your little ones on recommended schedules.
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2. Causes: Typhoid fever; NHS UK
3. Guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of typhoid fever; World Health Organization
4. Symptoms and treatment; Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
5. Michael Walsh,Typhoid Fever; Infection landscapes
6. Travel-Related Infectious Diseases:Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
7. Complications: Typhoid fever; NHS UK
8. Typhoid fever; Johns Hopkins Medicine
9. Sonja J. Olsen, et al.; Evaluation of Rapid Diagnostic Tests for Typhoid Fever; The United States National Library of Medicine
10. Typhoid and other invasive salmonellosis: Vaccine preventable diseases; World Health Organization
11. Typhoid; World Health Organization
12. Treatment: Typhoid fever; NHS UK
13. International travel and health:Typhoid fever; World Health Organization
14. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals: Typhoid fever; World Health Organization
15. Essential medicines and health products:Typhoid vaccine prequalified; World Health Organization
16. Prevention Tips for Travelers:Typhoid fever and paratyphoid fever; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention