- What is PMS?
- How common is PMS?
- What causes PMS?
- What are the symptoms of PMS?
- PMS symptoms vs pregnancy symptoms
Cramps, a rise in body temperature, irrational food cravings and mood swings. No, we are not talking about pregnancy.
Premenstrual syndrome or PMS is as troublesome as early pregnancy. The one good thing is they are gone once your period starts. MomJunction will help you understand PMS in detail, and the differences between PMS and pregnancy.
What is PMS?
Premenstrual syndrome is a combination of physical, emotional, psychological, and mood disturbances that some women experience after ovulation until their next period. Symptoms remain between five and eleven days before the menstrual flow and disappear on the onset of your period.
There is another severe form of PMS called premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), also known as late luteal phase dysphoric disorder. While only a few women experience this condition, it does disrupt daily activities owing to unusually severe symptoms.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) categorizes PMDD as a severe form of PMS where anger, anxiety, irritability, and tension are more prominent (1).
PMDD is rare but PMS is very common.
How Common Is PMS?
According to the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (AACOG), about 85% of women experience at least one PMS symptom in their menstrual cycle (2).
Most of them only experience mild symptoms that do not require any treatment. About 3% to 8% are known to have PMDD.
PMS is more common in women who are:
- in their late 20s to early 40s
- having a history of depression
- having at least one child
- having a medical history of any mood disorder or postpartum depression (1)
[ Read: Pregnancy Symptoms Before Missed Period ]
Let’s see why so many women suffer from PMS.
What Causes PMS?
There is no concrete evidence on the exact cause of PMS. However, it is assumed that regular changes in the endocrine system, which makes hormones controlling the menstrual cycle, bring about PMS (3).
Certain conditions may affect PMS, without directly causing it. Those factors include:
- Stress (4)
- Lack of sleep
- Lack of exercise
- Low levels of vitamins and minerals
- Over intake of salt, sugar and red meat
- Excessive consumption of alcohol and caffeine
Some health conditions, such as asthma, allergies and migraine headaches, could turn worse before periods (1).
Let us now move to an important question….
What Are PMS Symptoms?
PMS shows up in varied ways – it is different from one woman to another. Here are some of the signs and symptoms of PMS (5).
Physical signs include:
- Sore breasts
- Bloated tummy
- Hunger pangs
- Muscle aches
- Swollen hands and feet
- Joint pain
- Weight gain
- Diarrhea or constipation
Emotional signs include:
- Anxious or tensed behavior
- Mood swings
- Crying bouts or episodes
- Urge to be alone
- Anger outbursts
- Overwhelmed feelings
Behavioral signs of PMS include:
- Loss of mental focus
- Forgetting things (6)
[ Read: Body Changes During Pregnancy ]
Most PMS symptoms are similar to early symptoms of pregnancy. This makes it natural to be confused between the two, especially if your periods do not come on time. Our next section helps you to understand the difference.
PMS Symptoms vs Pregnancy Symptoms:
Before understanding the differences between PMS and pregnancy, let’s see the symptoms that are common between them.
Similarities between PMS and pregnancy
If you have the below signs, it may be difficult to say whether it is an upcoming period or you are pregnant.
- Back pain: You will experience back pain when your period is nearing, and also when you are pregnant (7).
- Headaches: Headaches and migraines are common both during pregnancy before periods.
- Constipation: The progesterone hormone leads to digestive issues such as constipation. As these levels rise during the second half of the menstrual cycle, it affects women with PMS. Also, hormonal changes in the early pregnancy cause constipation (8).
- Tender and swollen breasts: You will experience breast soreness, pain, swelling, and enlargement before period and in early pregnancy (9).
- Increased urination: You are likely to experience frequent urination when you are about to have your period and in your early pregnancy (10).
- Mood changes: Irritability, depression, anxiety, crying spells, and mood swings are all normal before your periods and in pregnancy (11).
These symptoms might make you anxious when you are hoping to have a baby or missed to take a contraceptive during intercourse. Knowing the differences would help.
[ Read: Moods Swings During Pregnancy ]
Differences between PMS and pregnancy
Read on to get more clarity on the oncoming pregnancy or periods.
PMS: You will not have any bleeding or spotting until your period starts.
Pregnancy: You will see light spotting (pink or dark brown) at the time of implantation (happens 10 to 14 days after conception) when the embryo attaches itself to the uterus. It lasts for a couple of days.
PMS: You feel exhausted even if you have not done anything strenuous and it goes away when your periods are round the corner (12). You feel better with a little bit of rest.
Pregnancy: If your periods are delayed, and you are experiencing extreme fatigue, it can be a symptom of pregnancy. It lasts throughout pregnancy due to the surge in progesterone levels that causes a drop in blood pressure and sugar levels.
3. Food cravings/aversions:
PMS: Your eating habits are likely to change when you have PMS. You will crave for sweets, chocolates, carbohydrates or salty foods, and you will develop a ravenous appetite. Although you crave for some foods, you can easily resist the cravings and temptations.
Pregnancy: You will have extreme cravings for some foods, and have aversions to some others. Some women also suffer from a food eating condition – pica – where they feel like eating non-food items such as dried paint flakes, metal pieces, and ice. In this case, you should consult your doctor immediately (13). These signs do not show in a PMS.
4. Nausea and vomiting:
PMS: Women do not nauseate or vomit when their periods are late, so you can confidently rule out nausea as a premenstrual syndrome symptom.
Pregnancy: Most women feel nauseous during early pregnancy. If your periods are delayed and you are extremely nauseous, you may be pregnant. Nausea begins anytime after two to eight weeks post conception, and continue throughout pregnancy (14).
[ Read: Nausea And Vomiting During Pregnancy ]
5. Abdominal or pelvic cramping:
PMS: Cramps or dysmenorrhea during PMS is common, and the severity varies according to the genetic disposition and body system. However, as bleeding starts, the pain decreases and slowly goes away as the flow ends (15).
Pregnancy: When the fertilized egg embeds into the uterine wall, it causes mild abdominal cramping along with spotting during early pregnancy. You will experience cramps in the lower back or lower stomach, which continue for weeks or even months, lasting much longer than PMS cramps.
Unique pregnancy symptoms less likely to occur during PMS
Some symptoms are specific to pregnancy and will not show in case of a nearing period or PMS.
- Darkening of the nipple: The estrogen levels in the body increase, leading to expansion of the areola size or nipple. As the pregnancy progresses, this development leads to the darkening of the areola, which remains dark, even after delivery (16).
- Changes in cervical mucus: One of the common indications of ovulation is changes in the cervical mucus (17). If a woman has conceived, then the mucus becomes white, milky, and is thin. It could be sticky as well. Before periods the vaginal discharge is transparent, almost like an egg white.
- Shortness of breath: You would have a shortness of breath as the embryo developing in the sac requires extra oxygen. (18).
- Increase in basal body temperature: If you are pregnant, the basal body temperature (BBT) increases slightly between 0.5 and 1.5for at least 18 days or more during ovulation, and continues to be high during pregnancy. Women may also experience an increase in the BBT as PMS symptom, but the temperature decreases once the period begins (19).
It is essential to know the right reason behind your symptoms, as that would help determine whether or not you are pregnant. The best way to find the difference between PMS and pregnancy symptoms is to take a home pregnancy test, in case your period is delayed.
In the next section, we answer a few common questions related to PMS and pregnancy symptoms that you may have at the top of your mind. Read on!
Frequently Asked Questions
1. What is the menstrual cycle?
It is a monthly series of bodily changes a woman experiences to prepare for pregnancy. One of the ovaries releases an egg every month (process called ovulation) and the hormones keep your body healthy to prepare the uterus for pregnancy. If ovulation occurs and the egg is not fertilized, the uterine lining sheds away in the form of the menstrual period. A menstrual cycle is counted from day one of the period to day one of the successive period. An average cycle lasts 28 days, and cycles range from 21 to 35 days in adults to even 21 to 45 days in teenagers (20).
2. When does PMS start?
PMS symptoms start around day 14 of the menstrual cycle and last until a week after your periods commence (21).
3. Is premenstrual syndrome normal?
Premenstrual syndrome is normal.Only a few symptoms disrupt daily routine by bringing in a wide range of physical, emotional, and behavioral changes. Making a few simple changes and adjustments in routine can help you get through PMS. However, in case of PMDD, you must see a doctor.
[ Read: How To Control Anger During Pregnancy ]
4. Do women with PMS see hormonal changes?
Yes, from PMS to menopause, the changing hormones affect weight and mood. They also affect the brain’s serotonin, showing considerable changes in mood, often resulting in mood swings. In some women PMS may be smooth without any adverse changes or effects, while in others, it may be a shipwreck at every hormonal fluctuation (22).
5. Can you have PMS while on birth control pills?
Some women say that birth control pills reduce PMS symptoms while others experience severe PMS symptoms. The hormonal changes and drop in hormonal levels during PMS will not occur if you are on birth control pills. This means there would either be less or no PMS in some women. In some instances, however, the hormones will fluctuate while on birth control pills and manifest into PMS (23).
6. Can I have PMS but no period?
Yes, you can have PMS but no periods, due to several reasons. They include polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), anemia, psychological stress, nutritional imbalance, contraception, weight loss, strenuous exercise, and more.
7. Should I get treatment for PMS?
Yes, treatment can help you manage PMS so that it does not affect your daily activities. Diet and lifestyle changes can help in case of mild to moderate PMS. But if it is severe, your doctor will prescribe medication or suggest treatment methods. The success of medical treatment, however, varies from woman to woman.
8. What dietary and lifestyle changes can I try for relief from PMS?
Take nutritional food, including vitamins, exercise, de-stress, and consider herbal remedies for relief from PMS.
9. What about herbal remedies for PMS?
Evening primrose oil, chaste tree extracts, saffron, Gingko biloba, and St. John’s wort are the most effective herbal remedies that relieve PMS symptoms. However, you should check with your doctor before including them as they can cause side effects and drug interactions (24).
10. Can you still get PMS symptoms if you are pregnant?
You cannot have PMS symptoms when you are pregnant as you are not premenstrual. Pregnancy has its own set of hormonal changes and symptoms.
[ Read: Pregnancy Hormones ]
For a woman without any prior pregnancy experience, the differentiation can be very difficult. So, if you are in doubt, always use a home pregnancy kit.
If you have any more queries, feel free to write to us. You can also share your experiences.
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